Important Dates in Sheffield History
- Prehistoric Period.
Fortifications made in the neighbourhood before historical records - Wincobank Camp, Carl's Wark, Mam Tor Camp, and the Bar Dike (Bradfield).
- Period of Roman Occupation.
79. Fourth Cohort of Gauls at the Roman Camp, Templeborough.
124. Roman veterans of the First Frisian Cohort made Roman citizens, and probably settled in the Rivelin Valley.
158. Roman inscription shows occupation of the Camp at Brough.
- In Saxon Times.
827 or 829. England united as one kingdom under Egbert at Dore.
924. Edward the Elder received the submission of the North, probably at Dore.
- Under the Norman Kings.
1066. Norman Conquest. Earl Waltheof had a Hall in Hallam. 1075. Waltheof, Lord of Hallam, executed at Winchester for treason.
1080. Countess Judith,. Walthcof's widow, in possession of Sheffield.
About 1100. The de Lovetot family owners of Hallam and Sheffield.
1110. A church probably founded where the Parish Church stands.
- Under the Plantagenet Kings.
1139. Forges and ironstone works busy at Kimberworth.
1187. First reference in writing to Sheffield Castle.
About 1199. Maud, last of the de Lovetots, married Gerald de Furnival. The Furnivals held Sheffield about 183 years.
1265. Sheffield Castle, and perhaps the Church also, burnt by Simon de Montfort's friends.
1270. The Church rebuilt. Permission given to rebuild the Castle.
1297. The Furnival Charter granted - the starting-point of Sheffield's freedom.
1383. The Talbots inherit' Sheffield through marriage.
About 1386. One of Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims carries a Sheffield knife.
- Period of the Wars of the Roses.
1434. Barker's Pool in use for the little town's water supply.
1429. John Talbot captured by the French and held for ransom.
1442. John Talbot, Lord of Hallamshirc, made Earl of Shrewsbury.
1453. Talbot killed in battle by the French.
- Under the Tudor Sovereigns.
1500. Sheffield Castle the home of the Shrewsbury family.
1510. The Shrewsbury Chapel built in the Parish Church.
1516. Sheffield Manor House built in the Park. 1530. Cardinal Wolsey at the Manor.
1554. Queen Mary of England granted a Charter to the Church Burgesses.
1570. Mary, Queen of Scots, arrived in Sheffield a prisoner.
1584. Mary, Queen of Scots, finally left Sheffield.
- Under the Stuart Kings.
1604. Thomas Smith, of Crowland, founded the Royal Grammar School.
1606. The Earl of Arundel married Alethea Talbot, and the Lordship of the Sheffield Manor passed to the ancestors of the Duke of Norfolk, the Castle ceasing to be occupied as a place of residence.
1624. Formation of the Cutlers' Company.
1638. The first Cutlers' Hall built.
1642. Civil Weir. The Castle held by the Parliamentary party, then by the King's party.
1644. Capture of the Castle by the Parliamentary army.
1648. The Castle demolished.
1648. Commencement, of the annual Cutlers' Feast.
1662. The Sheffield clergy all resign and become Dissenters.
1700. Upper Chapel built.
- Period of Growth into Modern Freedom.
1710. Stage Waggon for goods started between Sheffield and London.
1725. Second Cutlers' Hall built.
1739. Act passed for bringing Canal to Tinsley.
1740. St. Paul's Church opened on the edge of the Moor.
1742. John Wesley first visited Sheffield.
1742. Thomas Bolsover discovered silver plating.
1742. Benjamin Huntsman settled at Handsworth and began making crucible steel.
1743. The mob pulled down the first Methodist preaching-house.
1746. Samuel Walker started ironworks at Rotherham.
1760. The first Stage Coach run between Sheffield and London.
1773. Sheffield Assay Office established.
1781. Ebenezer Elliott born at Masbro'.
1781. Chantrey born at Norton.
1783. Joseph Hunter born in Sheffield.
1786. The first steam grinding-wheel started.
1791. Rioting in Sheffield against the Inclosure Acts. Broom Hall attacked.
1792. James Montgomery came to Sheffield.
1792. The old Barracks built.
1797. The Royal Infirmary opened.
1801. Population 45,755.
1802. The Duke of Norfolk sought powers to release his lands for building sites, and so allowed the town to expand. Population 52,231. The Million Act passed, enabling many churches to be built later.
1819. Sheffield Canal opened.
1819. Hunter's History of Hallamshire published.
1821. Population 65,275.
1821. The Ashopton road opened.
1822. The "Lit. and Phil." Society established.
1823. The Sheaf Works - the first considerable grouped works - established.
1828. Henry Clifton Sorby born in Sheffield.
1831. Population 91,692.
1832. First Sheffield Parliamentary Election. Two Members.
1832. Present Cutlers' Hall built.
1836. Sheffield Collegiate School founded.
1838. Wesley College founded.
1838. Sheffield and Rotherham Railway opened.
1839. Sheffield Water Company formed.
1840. Midland Railway made from Derby to Masbro'.
1841. Population 110,891.
- Period of self-Government.
1843. Sheffield incorporated as a Borough.
1843. The School of Art founded.
1844. Beginning of a Daily Post to London.
1846. Cammells removed to Savile Street - the first of the East End firms.
1847. The first Redmircs dam finished.
1848. The first Bench of Sheffield magistrates appointed.
1851. Population 136,287.
1854. The Church Burgesses' spending scheme fixed.
1856. The Free Library opened.
1861. Population 186,178,
1864. The Great Sheffield Flood.
1867. The Inquiry into the Broadhead Trade Outrages.
1870. Sheffield School Board formed.
1871. Population 239,941.
1873. Weston Park purchased.
1875. Ruskin Museum commenced.
1879. Firth College opened by Prince Leopold.
1881. Population 284,508.
1885. Sheffield returned five Members to Parliament.
1887. Opening of the Mappin Art Gallery.
1888. The Waterworks taken over by the Corporation.
1888. Lodge Moor Fever Hospital built.
1890. The Ruskin Museum removed to Meersbrook.
1891. Population 325,547.
1893. Sheffield made a City.
1894. Dore and Chinley Railway opened.
1896. The Tramways acquired by the Corporation.
1897. Firth College became Sheffield University College.
1897. The new Town Hall opened by Queen Victoria.
1897. The Chief Magistrate became a Lord Mayor.
1898. The Electric Light and Power Department acquired by the City.
1899. The Markets bought from the Duke of Norfolk by the City.
1901. Population 401,151.
1901. A Suffragan Bishop appointed.
1904. The Central School became a Secondary School.
1905. Sheffield University established. Opening by King Edward VII.
1906. King Edward VII School formed by the amalgamation of the Grammar School and Wesley College.
1906. New Training College for Teachers opened.
1911. Population 455,817. Sheffield the largest city in Yorkshire.
1913. Estimated population 471,662.
1914. Sheffield made a bishopric.