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Chapter II, of Cassells Illustrated History of England, Volume 1 page 5

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4th. Maxima Caesariensis, lying to the north of the two preceding ones, extending to the Wall of Severus, between the Tyne and the Solway.

5th. Valentia, comprising the lands from the Wall of Severus to the Forth and Clyde.

The conquests of Agricola, which extended to the Grampians, although dignified by the rank of a province under the name of Vespasiana, remained but a short time in the possession of the Romans.

The limits of the Roman provinces in the island have given rise to many discussions amongst the learned. We have taken them as laid down by Richard of Cirencester, De Situ Britain. Each of these provinces had a separate ruler, subject to the governor-general of Britain, who was named by the emperor under the title of prefect. He exercised all but sovereign authority, and united in his hands both the military and judicial power. Under him was a procurator, or questor, who levied the taxes, and administered the revenues of the island.

The principal sources of revenue were a poll tax, a tax on funerals and inheritances, on slaves, on all public sales, and an impost upon cattle and agricultural produce.

The tax upon cattle, which was called scriptura, from the collectors visiting the pastures and writing down lists of the number and kind which each estate nourished, was particularly oppressive to the Britons, and one of the most frequent causes of revolt.

In addition to these burdens, the Romans levied imposts upon merchandise, either imported or exported, which formed a considerable item in their revenue, the commerce between the empire and Britain having been greatly extended. Agriculture also made immense progress in the island, in which cities of considerable importance were built.

Of these the most important, in a commercial point of view, were Clausentum and London.

In the second century, Britain contained upwards of a hundred cities; the principal were London, Colchester, Bath, Gloucester, Caerleon, Chester, Lincoln, and Chesterfield; most of them built upon lands which the emperors had bestowed upon the veterans of those legions whose descendants formed the greater part of the population. The larger cities, about ten in number, enjoyed the jus Latii, which conferred, amongst other privileges, the right of electing their magistrates. The inferior ones, called stipendiaries, paid tribute to the emperor, and were governed by officers under the authority of the prefect.

Thus we perceive that Britain owed to Rome, not only her first steps in the path of civilisation, but her municipal government, a code of written laws, judges to interpret them, and civil instead of priestly tribunals; whilst, at the same time, her arts and refinements gradually wrought a change in the savage but warlike character of its inhabitants, who, previous to their invasion, lived in a state of barbarism, inhabiting wretched huts, built in the rudest form. Their progress in architecture must have been rapid.

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Pictures for Chapter II, of Cassells Illustrated History of England, Volume 1 page 5

Caledonians, or Picts.
Caledonians, or Picts. >>>>
Landing of Julius Caesar.
Landing of Julius Caesar. >>>>
Julius Caesar.
Julius Caesar. >>>>
Roman Soldiers
Roman Soldiers >>>>
The Romans leaving London.
The Romans leaving London. >>>>

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