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Chapter XXXIV, of Cassells Illustrated History of England, Volume 8 page 6


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Mouravief was quite prepared to treat. At first, however, he seemed disposed to exact hard terms. But General Williams said there must' be a conditional surrender on terms. " 'If you grant not these,' said General Williams, ' every gun shall be burst, every standard burnt, every trophy destroyed, and you may work your will on a famished crowd.' 'I have no wish,' answered Mouravief, ' to wreak an unworthy vengeance on a gallant and long-suffering army, which has covered itself with glory, and only yields to famine. Look here! ' he exclaimed, pointing to a lump of bread and a handful of roots: ' what splendid troops must these be who can stand to their arms in this severe climate on such food as this!'" Both generals were affected, for both were brave men. The terms were soon agreed upon. They were embodied in these articles, dated the 27th of November: - " 1. The fortress of Kars shall be delivered up intact. 2. The garrison of Kars, with the Turkish commander-in-chief, shall march out with the honours of war, and become prisoners. The officers, in consideration of their gallant defence of the place, shall retain their swords. [This was dictated by Mouravief himself.] 3. The private property of the whole garrison shall be respected. 4. The Rediffs (militia), Bashi-Bazouks, and Laz, shall be allowed to return to their homes. 5. The non- combatants - such as medical officers, scribes, and hospital attendants - shall be allowed to return to their homes. 6. General Williams shall be allowed the privilege of making a list of certain Hungarian and other European officers, to enable them to return to their homes. [This was done to save Kmety and others.] 7. The persons mentioned in Articles 4, 5, and 6, are in honour bound not to serve against Russia during the war. 8. The inhabitants of Kars will be protected in their persons and property. 9. The public buildings and the monuments of the town will be respected." With some difficulty the Turkish pashas were got to accept these favourable terms, and on the 28th the garrison marched out and laid down its arms.

Thus ended the campaign in Asia in 1855. The Russians captured in Kars about 10,000 regulars, 66 siege guns, 70 beautiful field-pieces, 2,000 Miniť rifles, and a considerable quantity of ammunition. Yet there bad never been in the fortress more than a supply for three days' continuous fighting.

The English officers were taken into Russia, and were not released until the end of the war. The Russians occupied the whole of Turkish Armenia until the peace, but made no further attempt to extend their conquests. On looking back, it becomes manifest that the relief of Kars might have been effected by an early and decisive march of Omer Pasha's army from Trebizond upon Erzroum. To this he was opposed, as well as the Emperor of the French and the Sultan's Government; but that it was the only feasible plan might readily be shown. Kars was really sacrificed to the exigencies of the alliance and of the Crimean campaign. The French Emperor would not give his consent that anything should be risked to save Kars; nor did he want to save it; for the success of Russia in Asia was not only not indifferent, it was gratifying to him. The success of Russia was a diminution of British prestige in the East. Moreover, the Emperor, as we shall see, soon resolved that peace should be made; and that remark carries us back to Europe and the incidents that marked the winter of 1855-6.

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Pictures for Chapter XXXIV, of Cassells Illustrated History of England, Volume 8 page 6

Colonel Williams
Colonel Williams >>>>
Colonel Lake
Colonel Lake >>>>
Captain Teesdale
Captain Teesdale >>>>
Alexander II. of Russia.
Alexander II. of Russia. >>>>

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