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Cassells Illustrated History of England


From the Accession of George IV. to the Irish Famine, 1847.

We now present to the Public the Seventh Volume of our History of England.

It comprises a period of twenty-seven years, from the Accession of George the Fourth, in 1820, to the Irish Famine in 1847, and thus embraces many events of the utmost importance. The changes that are here described were the immediate forerunners of that state of enlightenment and liberal-mindedness which now prevails. The History, therefore, records the passing away of much that was old and the substitution of much that was new.

The events of these twenty-seven years, though they are of course fresh in the memory of the older men amongst us, yet seem to us to require a clear and precise narrative, even more than those of two or three hundred years ago. The information respecting them, it is true, has been gathered into a few continuous historical records, but these cannot be easily consulted. It lies scattered also through formidable files of newspapers, musty pamphlets, biographies, and diaries. Further, many of the events are of a character which rendered it impossible to recount them fairly at the time when they took place, or even for many years afterwards. Party prejudice on one side or the other warped the judgment and falsified the records. For instance, what contemporary could have written a fair account of the Divorce of Queen Caroline, or of the Reform Bill? It has been our business to consult every source of information within our reach, and to give a narrative which will, we hope, be found as impartial as every historical narrative ought to be. In recounting great struggles like that for the Repeal of the Corn Laws, we have tried to realise the position of each of the contending parties, and to give each of them full credit for sincerity and truth. Above all, we have striven, in going over these old battle-fields of class against class, to say not one word that might serve to re-kindle the old animosities, or give new life to scandals that are now happily passing into oblivion.

The next Volume we shall commence with an account of the "Year of Revolutions," 1848 - particularly recording the Chartist demonstration in this country. We shall go carefully over the History of Italy during that stormy period of her annals which ended with the fatal day of Novara, to serve as a preface to the detailed narrative we purpose giving of the French Campaign in Lombardy in 1859, and the brilliant achievements of Garibaldi in Naples and Sicily in the following year. The Crimean War will receive full attention at our hands: we shall recount the negotiations that preceded it, and endeavour, as far as the nature of the case permits, to relate the events connected with it in the same spirit of dispassionate inquiry after the truth as dictated our researches on the subjects alluded to above.

It is almost needless to say that, while we recount these events at length, we shall leave space for a full narrative of the Indian Mutiny - a struggle without parallel in our annals, whether we regard its horrors or the heroism displayed by the handful of Europeans who were suddenly attacked, and had to hold their own against fearful odds, with but little prospect of relief.

Table of content

  • Chapter: I. Accession of George IV
    The Cato Street Conspiracy - Disturbances in the North - The New Parliament - Death of Grattan - Henry Grattan on National Education.
  • Chapter: II.
    The Queen's Name struck out of the Liturgy - She returns to England - Her Reception by the People - Intense Public Excitement - Civil War imminent - Various Attempts at Negotiation fail - All hope of Adjustment abandoned.
  • Chapter: III.
    The bill of pains and penalties.
  • Chapter: IV.
    The Queen's Trial - The Evidence - The Defence.
  • Chapter: V.
    The Coronation - The Queen's claim to be Crowned with the King rejected - Coronation of George IV. - The Ceremonial.
  • Chapter: VI. Visit of George IV. to Ireland
    The King's Arrival and Reception at Howth - Public Entry into Dublin - Review in the Phoenix Park - Christ's Church Cathedral - Levée at the Castle - The Drawing-room - The Theatre Royal - The Linen Hall - The Bank of Ireland - The Corporation Banquet - The Royal Dublin Society - Visit to Slane Castle - Chief Justice Bushe - The Dublin University - Installation of the Knights of St. Patrick - Ball at the Rotunda - The Curragh of Kildare - The Castle Chapel - Visit to Powerscourt - The King's Departure - The King's Message of Conciliation to his Irish Subjects- The Effect of the Royal Visit on the Country.
  • Chapter: VII. The King's Visit to Hanover
    Political Intrigues of Lady Conyngham - Seclusion of the Sovereign - Opening of Parliament - The Royal Speech - The State of Ireland - Ministerial Changes - the Grenville Party - Mr. Peel, Home Secretary; Lord. Wellesley, Irish Viceroy; Mr. Plunket, Irish Attorney-General; Mr. Goulburn, Chief Secretary - Coercion in Ireland - The Irish Famine - English Munificence - Duplicity of the King on the Catholic Disabilities - Mr. Canning's Bill for the admission of Roman Catholic Peers to the House of Lords - Parliamentary Reform - Lord John Russell - Agricultural Distress: Parliamentary Inquiry on the Subject; Remedies proposed - Financial Operations - The Sinking Fund - Cash Payments - The Press in Scotland - Navigation Laws - Bishop Marsh - The Law of Marriage; its Reform strenuously resisted by Lord Eldon - Dependence of Members of Parliament - Suicide of Lord Londonderry: its Causes; his Character and Career as a Statesman; his Funeral - The King's Visit to Scotland - His Reception at Edinburgh - Sir Walter Scott - The Highland Clans - Public Entry into the City - The Levée Festivities - The Civic Banquet - The King's Return.
  • Chapter: VIII.
    Mr. Canning and the Holy Alliance - Lord Eldon's Apprehensions and Mortifications - Lord Bexley - Mr. Robinson Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Mr. Huskisson President of the Board of Trade - The Congress of Verona - The Duke of Wellington British Plenipotentiary - His Instructions - Conferences with the French King and his Ministers - French Intervention in Spain - Designs of the Allied Sovereigns regarding Greece - Turkey and Spain - William Allen - Festivities at Verona - Seductive Influences brought to bear on the Duke - Animosities of the Allies against England - The Duke disappointed and disgusted with the Conduct of the allied Despots - Mr. Canning's Foreign Policy - Public Feeling in England - The Duke of Wellington censured for his Conduct at the Congress - French Invasion of Spain - Recognition of the South American Provinces - Canning's Defence of his Policy.
  • Chapter: IX. National presperity and the monetary system.
    Agricultural Distress - Proposed Remedies - Mr. Cobbett - Resumption of Cash Payments - A restricted Currency - Scarcity of the Precious Metals - Inconvertible Paper Money - The Small Note Act; its Effect on Prices - Brilliant Dawn of Commercial Prosperity - Mr. Huskisson's Statement - A Popular Budget - The Reduction of the National Debt - The Sinking Fund - Mysteries of the Public Funds - Reform of our Commercial Policy - Mr. Huskisson as a Free Trader - Policy of the Navigation Laws - The Reciprocity System - His Answer to the Arguments of the Protectionists - The Shipping Interest - The Retaliatory Principle - The Petition of the London Merchants - The Principles of Free Trade clearly stated and triumphantly vindicated - Growing Influence of the Commercial Classes on Legislation in General- Flourishing State of all the National Interests - Enterprise and Progress - Joint Stock Companies - Abundance of Capital - Reckless Speculation - Excessive Issue of Notes by Country Banks - Spirit of Adventure - Mining Speculations - Drain of Bullion to South America - The Commercial Crisis - General Panic; its ruinous Effects - Remedy, a Government issue of Inconvertible Bank Notes - Evils of an inadequate Currency.
  • Chapter: X. The Irish Government
    The Marquis of Wellesley - Condition ot the Peasantry - Causes of Irish Poverty - Exaggeration - The Orange Society - King William - The "Bottle Riot " - Prosecution of the Orangemen - The Catholic Question - Sir Robert Peel - The Catholic Association - Its Suppression - The new Catholic Association - The Catholic Relief Bill of 1825 - Declaration of the Duke of York.
  • Chapter: XI.
    Dissolution of Parliament - The General Election - The Irish Landlords and the Irish Priests - The Forty Shilling Freeholders - Anti-Catholic Feeling in England - The New Parliament - Bubble Companies and the House of Commons - Illness of the Duke of York - The Expedition to Portugal; Canning's Speech on the Subject - Death of the Duke of York; his Character; Attack upon his Character by Mr. Sheil - The Duke's Funeral - The Royal Vault at Windsor - Death and Character of Lord Liverpool - Mr. Canning Prime Minister - Factious Opposition of the Tory Lords; not shared by Peel - Aristocratic Combination against Genius and Personal Merit - The Whig Peers stand by their Order - The Position of Canning; his Health gives way, and he succumbs to Aristocratic Persecution; his Death.
  • Chapter: XII.
    The Goderich Administration; its Dissolution - The Wellington Ministry- Creation of Peers - Canning's Widow a Viscountess - The Grenville Party - Eldon Discarded; his bitter Mortification - The Battle of Navarino - Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge - Brougham - "The Schoolmaster Abroad " - Mr. Huskisson - East Retford and Penryn - Retirement of the Canningites from the Ministry - Wellington's Mental Reservation - The Nonconformists - The Act of Uniformity - The Penal Code against Dissenters - Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts; Peel's Objections; The Government adopt the Measure - Opposition in the Lords - Lord Eldon's frantic Denunciations of the Government and the Bishops - The Declaration substituted for the Sacramental Test; Commemoration of the Triumph.
  • Chapter: XIII.
    The Catholic Disabilities - Motion of Sir Francis Burdett - The Marquis Wellesley succeeded by Lord Anglesey in the Government of Ireland - The Act for the Suppression of the Catholic Association- Impolicy of Coercion - Fourteen Days' Meetings - Progress of Liberal Opinion in Parliament - Mr. O'Connell, his Character and Career; Grattan's Attack upon him - Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald - The Clare Election - Mr. Sheil - The Priest of Corrofin - O'Connell at Ennis - The Nomination - The Battle of the Priests and Landlords - The Triumphant Return of O'Connell - Profound Sensation in England- Mr. Peel's Reflections on the Event - Disaffection of Catholic Soldiers- Apprehensions of Insurrection - The Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel determine on Concession.
  • Chapter: XIV.
    Disturbed State of Ireland - Military Organisation of the Peasantry - John Lawless at Ballyhay - The Brunswick Clubs - Protestants of Ulster - Perplexity of the Government - Conduct of Lord Anglesey« - Apprehensions of Rebellion - Mr. O'Connell's "Moral Force" - Rationale of Agitation - The Order of u Liberators " - Exclusive Dealing - Celtic Organisation - Mr. Dawson, of Derry, counsels " Surrender; " he is burnt in Effigy - The Brunswickers eager for War - The Penenden Heath Meeting - Mr. Sheil's Speech - The Catholic Association - The Leinster Declaration - "Weakness of the Moderate Party in Ireland - Banquet to Lord Morpeth on his Visit to Dublin - The Duke of Wellington's Letter to Primate Curtis - Reply of the Viceroy; difference between him and the Premier - Complaints of the latter regarding the Irish Administration - Lord Anglesey's spirited Defence; his Recall; his parting Advice to the Roman Catholics - Lord Eldon's Account of the King's Distress about Emancipation - The English Bishops hostile to Catholic Emancipation - Sir Robert Peel's Statement of the Difficulties in the Way - The King consents to have Emancipation made a Cabinet Question.
  • Chapter: XV.
    The Opening of the Session of 1829 - Peel rejected by the Oxford University - Bill for the Suppression of the Catholic Association - The Emancipation Bill - Public Excitement - Debates in the Commons - The Bill passed by triumphant Majorities - Debates in the Lords - The Duke of Wellington's Speech - Opposition of the Bishops - The Bill carried by sweeping Majorities - Lord Eldon - The King's Distress- He wishes to withdraw his Assent - Endeavours to form another Administration, and failing, yields to the Duke's Demands - His bitter Complaints to Lord Eldon - Roman Catholic Statistics - Attacks on the Duke of Wellington - Duel with Lord Winchelsea - Abolition of the Irish Forty Shilling Freeholders - Testimonial 'to O'Connell - His Exclusion as MP. for Clare - Appears at the Bar of the House, and refuses to take the Protestant Oaths - He is heard at the Bar - His Claim rejected - The Second Clare Election - Mr. Smith O'Brien and Mr. Steele - O'Connell returned without Opposition - O'Connell and the Beresfords - Proposed Testimonial to the Duke of Wellington - O’Connell for Repeal - The Roman Catholic Prelates - Dr. Doyle - " J. K. L."
  • Chapter: XVI.
    Difficulties of the Government - Distress of the Silk-weavers - Destructive Outrages - The Game Laws - Prorogation of Parliament - The Royal Speech - Condition of Portugal - State of Parties - Disturbances in Ireland - The Meeting of Parliament - National Distress - Breaking up of the Tory Party - Position of the Duke of Wellington - Financial Reform - The Currency - Remission of Taxes - Press Prosecutions - The King's Habits of Seclusion; his Illness; his Last Moments; his Death; his Character; his Patronage of the Fine Arts - Social Progress during the Past Reign - Religious Equality and Free Trade.
  • Chapter: XVII.
    Accession of William IV. - His Popularity-Mr. Brougham's Eulogy of him - Mr. Roebuck's Estimate of his Character - Queen Adelaide- Address to the King - Whig Tactics - The Regency Question - Lord Eldon's Forebodings - Earl Grey's Motion - Debate in the Commons - Mr. Brougham - The Duke of Cumberland - Lord John Russell- Mr. Brougham's Attack on the Government - Mr. Brougham's Speech on Negro Slavery - Dissolution of Parliament - The French Revolution - Charles X. - The Royal Ordonnances Abolishing the Constitution - Suppression of the Public Journals - Remarkable Report on the Power of the Press - Meeting of Journalists - The Insurrection in Paris - Three Days' Fighting in the Streets - The People Victorious - Louis Philippe Elected King of the French - Tremendous Effect of the Revolution on Public Opinion in the United Kingdom - Aristocratic Leaders of the People in Middlesex and Yorkshire - Mr. Hume and Mr. Brougham - The General Election - The Results Unfavourable to the Government - The Duke of Wellington on Pocket Boroughs - Disturbed State of Ireland - O'Connell Challenged by ^ir Henry Hardinge - Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway - Death of Mr. Huskisson - The Duke of Wellington's Objection to Railway Travelling - Mr. Huskisson's Public Career - The Belgian Revolution - Incendiary Fires in England - Unpopularity of the Wellington Administration.
  • Chapter: XVIII.
    The New Parliament - Mr. Manners Sutton, Speaker - The Royal Speech: Intense Excitement produced by it - Reform - Earl Grey's Manifesto - The Duke of Wellington's fatal Declaration against Reform - Mr. Brougham's Notice of Motion on Reform - Lord Winchelsea's Attack on the Government - Mr. Hume - Mr. O'Connell - Public Excitement - The Metropolitan Police - Alarm in London - Preparations for Insurrection - The King advised not to attend the City Banquet - Consequent Odium of the Government - The Duke determines to retire from Office - The Civil List - Defeat of the Government - Resignation of Ministers: their Reasons for the Step - Mr. Brougham's Motion postponed - Mr. Roebuck's View of Mr. Brougham's Position and Conduct at this Crisis- Mr. Brougham becomes Lord Chancellor - Lord Grey's Administration - Ministerial Statement - Policy of the New Government - The Duke of Wellington out of Office: Despairs of the Country: his gloomy Predictions - Disturbances in the South of England - Special Commissions - Seditious Agitation - Distress in Ireland - Mr. Sheil on the Repeal of the Union - Lord Cloncurry on the Emancipation Act - Lord Anglesey again Irish Viceroy: his Reception - Prosecution of O'Connell: he pleads Guilty, and escapes Judgment - The Game Act.
  • Chapter: XIX.
    Political Unions - Meeting of Parliament - The Reform Committee? its Report - The Scheme of Reform submitted to the King - The Budget - Agitation on the Reform Question - Excitement in the House of Commons on the Introduction of the Measure - The Principles of the Bill - Lord John Russell - Debates on the First Reading - Arguments in Favour of the Measure - Mr. Macaulay - Virtual Representation - Evils of Political Monopoly - Inefficacy of Coercion - Influence of the Aristocracy - Scotland - Ireland - Increase of Electors under the Reform Bill - New Constituencies - Astonishment caused by the Sweeping Changes - Anecdote by Lord Brougham - Arguments against the Bill - Sir Robert Inglis - Alleged Utility of Rotten Boroughs - Placemen in Parliament - The First Reading of the Bill - State of Parties - Reformers and Conservatives - " The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill " - Mutual Intolerance - Petition of the Glasgow Operatives - Petition of the London Bankers and Merchants - Doleful Predictions as to the Destructive Effects of Reform - The Second Reading of the Bill carried by a Majority of One - Terrific Pressure from Without - General Gascoyne's Motion - Defeat of the Government - The King's Objection to a Dissolution - Stopping the Supplies - Mr. Stanley - The Irish Reform Bill - Impatience of the Lords - Lord Wharncliffe - Appeals to the King - The Lord Chancellor - The King's Timidity and Vanity - Interview of Lord Grey and Lord Brougham with the King - Extraordinary Scenes in the Lords and in the Commons - The Dissolution.
  • Chapter: XX.
    The Press - The Rev. Sydney Smith on the Boroughmongering System – Fonblanque - The Times - The Peers and the Chancellor - Lord Londonderry - Parliament and the Liberty of the Press - Illuminations on the Dissolution of Parliament - Violence of the Mob - Sir Walter Scott - The Windows of Apsley House broken - Organisation of the Reformers- Reform Candidate Society - Popular Thirst for Political Knowledge- Intense Public Spirit of the Nation - Visionary Expectations - The New Parliament - The Royal Speech - Debate on the Recent Dissolution - The State of Ireland - Mr. O'Connell - Mr. Stanley - Impolitic Treatment of the Irish Popular Chief - The Second Reform Bill - Lord John Russell's Speech - Debate on the Second Reading - Position of Sir Robert Peel - Discussions on the Reform Bill in Committee - The Chandos Clause - Proposed Representations of the Colonies - Household Suffrage - The Bill passed - Public Rejoicing - Illuminations - The Bill in the House of Lords - Debate on the Second Reading - Lord Grey's Speech: his Appeal to the Episcopal Bench: they vote against the People - Consequent Unpopularity of the Bishops - Speech of Lord Eldon: his Vaticinations - The Last Night of the Debate - Exasperation of the Public Mind - Outrages - The King stands by his Ministers - Vote of Confidence in the Commons - Prorogation of Parliament - The Royal Speech - Firmness of the Government - Bristol Riots.
  • Chapter: XXI.
    Revolutionary Publications - Loyal Demonstrations - Opening of London Bridge - Provision for the Princess Victoria - Coronation of the King and Queen - New Pears and Baronets - The Tory Peers tampering with the King - The Duke of Wellington labours to Extricate him from Whig Bondage - General Apprehension of a Great Convulsion- Edward Irving - Dr. Arnold - The Cholera - Ignorance of Sanitary Laws - The Plague of Revolution, and its Causes - New Political Combination, headed by the Duke of Wellington - Negotiations for a Compromise on the Reform Bill by Lord Wharncliffe - The Duke of Wellington's Predictions - Re-assembling of Parliament - Third Introduction of the Reform Bill - Lord John Russell's Alarm - Alterations in the Reform Bill - Combination of Numbers and Property - Debate on the Second Reading - The Reform Bill in Committee - Passing of the Bill - Debate on the Second Reading in the Lords - Lord Grey's Speech - Lord Shrewsbury - Lord Durham and the Bishop of Exeter - The Bishop of Gloucester's Defence of the Episcopal Bench - The Bill read a Second Time - Protest of the Duke of Wellington and others- Public Excitement during the Easter Recess - Proceedings of Political Unions - Aggregate Meetings at Birmingham - Ruse of the Opposition Peers - Lord Lyndhurst - Resignation of the Ministry - Lord Lyndhurst consulted by the King - Sir Robert Peel declines the Premiership - The Duke of Wellington's Attempt to form a Cabinet - Unpopularity of the King and Queen - Refusal to pay Taxes - Withholding the Supplies- Threats of Insurrection - Lord Ebrington's Motion for an Address to the King - Mr. Macaulay on the Position of the Opposition Lords - Sir Robert Inglis - Failure of the Duke of Wellington to form a Ministry - The King's Alternative: a Creation of Peers or Civil War - He submits to Lord Grey's Terms - The Third Reading carried - The King refuses to give his Assent in Person.
  • Chapter: XXII.
    The Irish Reform Bill: its Defects - The English Act better than the Irish - Antagonism of Stanley and O'Connell, and its Bad Consequences - The Scotch Reform Bill - The Old System in that Country: No Man returned in Scotland for his Merits - The Property Qualification - Revolution effected by the Scotch Reform Act - General Results of the Reform Acts - Unsettled State of Ireland - Sketch of Mr. Stanley as Chief Secretary - Lord Grey's Estimate of O'Connell - Lord Cloncurry on Irish Agitation and its Causes - Disappointment as to the Results of Emancipation - The "Monster Grievance " - The Tithe System - Furious Agitation against the Establishment - A Contrast: the Pound; the Glebe - Destitution of the Clergy - Fatal Encounters with the People at Newtownbarry, Carrickshock, Castle- pollard, and Gurtroe - -Advances of Public Money to the Clergy- Failure of the Government as Tithe Collector - Estimate of Irish Church Property - Census of Religious Denominations - Appropriation of Church Property - Mr. Ward's Motion on the Irish Establishment - Resignation of Mr. Stanley and Sir J. Graham - Address of the Irish Bishops to the King: His Extemporaneous Speech in Reply - Defeat of Mr. Ward's Motion - The Church Temporalities Act - The Ecclesiastical Commission - Failure of the Irish Church as a National Educator - The Charter Schools - Association for discountenancing Vice, &c - The Kildare-street Society - The National System of Education Introduced by Mr. Stanley - Scriptural Education - The Church Education Society - Parental Rights - United Education - The National School Books.
  • Chapter: XXIII.
    The English Poor Laws - A Social Contrast - The Poor Law Commission of Inquiry - Demoralisation of the Working Classes - The Elizabethan Poor Law - Limitations of the Right to Relief - Workhouses - The Law of Settlement - Duties of an Overseer under the Old System - Efforts to keep down the Population - War against Cottages - "Nests of Beggar's Brats" - Depopulation of the Country - The Allowance System - Its Disorganising Effects - Increase of Population and of Cottages - Able-bodied Paupers - The Poor Law Amendment Act - Board of Commissioners - Formation of Unions - Boards of Guardians - Salutary Effects of the New Act.
  • Chapter: XXIV. Negro Emancipation
    Negro Emancipation - Mr. Buxton's Motion on Slavery - Mr. Canning's Resolutions - Change in Public Opinion on Slavery - Condition of the West Indian Slaves - Influence of the Missionaries - Mr. Brougham's Motion - Mr. Stanley's Plan of Negro Emancipation - Compensation to the Slave-owners - Apprenticeship - The Emancipation Act passed - Liberty proclaimed 1st of August, 1834 - Provisions of the Measure- Division of the Twenty Millions - Working of the Apprenticeship System - Complete Emancipation in 1838 - Economic and Social Effects of Emancipation - Results of Free and Slave Labour, a Contrast - Lord Eldon and the New Poor Law - Renewal of the Irish Coercion Act - Lord Althorp and Mr. Sheil - Trades Unions - Strikes - Excitement about the Conviction of Six Dorchester Labourers - Strike of 3,000 Men at Leeds - Meeting at Copenhagen Fields - Strike of 13,000 Tailors in London - Charges against the Trades Unions - Condemned by Lord Brougham - Murder of a Manufacturer at Chester - Strike of 10,000 London Builders - Debate on Mr. O'Connell's Motion on the Repeal of the Union - Speech of Mr. Spring Rice - Ovation of the Duke of Wellington and Lord Eldon at Oxford - Disappointment of the Tories- Dissensions in the Cabinet - Charge against Baron Smith - The Vote of Censure against him Rescinded - The Corn Laws - Retirement of Lord Grey: his Career and Character - Dispute between O'Connell and the Chief Secretary - Lord Melbourne Premier- Dissenting Grievances - Their Exclusion from the Ministry - The Bill for their Admission rejected - Old Bailey Jurisdiction.
  • Chapter: XXV. Prorogation of Parliament
    Prorogation of Parliament - King's Speech - Business of the Session- Banquet to Earl Grey - Fire in the Dublin Custom House - Burning of the House of Parliament - Death of Earl Spencer - Dismissal of the Melbourne Ministry - The Lord Chancellor's Tour in Scotland - The Duke of Wellington sent for - His Account of the Ministerial Crisis- Sir Robert Peel Prime Minister - The Duke of Cumberland - Lord Stanley and the Conservative Whigs - Policy of the Peel Administration - Civic Banquet to the new Ministers - Meeting at the London Tavern - Liberal Reaction - Effect of the change of Ministry in Ireland - O'Connell - Lord Chancellor Sugden - The Rev. Dr. Boyton - The General Election - Outrages in Scotland - Agitation in Ireland - Meeting of -Parliament - Election of a Speaker - The Lichfield House Compact.
  • Chapter: XXVI.
    The Royal Speech - Lord Morpeth moves an Amendment to the Address - Carried by a Majority of Seven - The King's Answer - Motion of Lord Chandos on the Malt Duties - The Appointment of Lord Londonderry as Ambassador to St. Petersburg cancelled in Deference to Public Opinion - Dissenters' Marriages - Ministerial Bill on Irish Tithes- Lord John Russell's Motion on Irish Church Temporalities - The Right of the State to Dispose of Church Property - Defeat of the Ministry on this Question - Second Defeat on their Irish Tithe Bill - Sir Robert Peel's Resignation - His Parting Statement - The Irish Church Question.
  • Chapter: XXVII.
    The Second Melbourne Ministry - State of Public Feeling - Effects of the Peel Administration-O'Connell and the Government - Proposed Expulsion of O'Connell from Brookes's - O'Connell Challenged by Lora Alvanley - Duel between his Lordship and Mr. Morgan O'Connell - Quarrel between O'Connell and Disraeli - Efforts to Damage the Melbourne Government through O'Connell - Polemical Crusade in Ireland - Peter Dens - City Banquet to Sir Robert Peel - Difficulties of the Melbourne Cabinet - Sydney Smith's Sketch of the Premier - Corporation Reform - Commission of Inquiry on the State of the Municipal Bodies; their Report - The Evils and Anomalies of the System - The English Municipal Reform Bill - Objections of the Conservatives - The Freemen - Principles and Provisions of the Municipal Act - The Reformed Corporations - The Irish Corporations worse than the English- Report of the Commissioners - The Irish Municipal Reform Bill - Determined Opposition of the Lords - Its agitating Effect on the Public Mind - The Struggle ended in 1840 - The Irish Reform Act - Municipal Reform in Scotland.
  • Chapter: XXVIII.
    Agricultural Distress - Financial Statement - Practical Reforms - The Naval Code - The Patent Laws - Work of the Session - Obstructive Action of the House of Lords - Agitation against the Peers - Submissive Attitude of the Commons in presence of the Lords - O'Connell's Agitating Tour in England and Scotland - Enormous Increase of Peers by the Tories, Counterbalanced by the Whigs - Privileges and Immunities of the Order - Committee of Inquiry on Orange Lodges in the Army - Alleged Conspiracy to set aside the Succession of the Princess Victoria, in order to make way for the Duke of Cumberland - Startling Revelations made by the Committee - Commission given by the Duke of Cumberland, as Grand Master of the Orange Society, to organise a Counter-Revolution against the Emancipation Act - The Duke of Wellington charged with playing the part of Cromwell - Plans of the Conspirators - Formidable extent of the Confederation - Mr. Hume's Resolutions on the subject - Colonel Fairman, threatened with Imprisonment for Breach of Privilege, absconds - Proposed Criminal Prosecution of the Duke of Cumberland and the Orange Leaders - Mr. Hume again brings the subject before Parliament, moving for an Address to the King on the Case of the Duke of Cumberland, and calling for the dismissal of all Orange Officials - Amendment of Lord J. Russell carried unanimously - The Orange Society dissolved - Its Revival in Ireland - The Irish Government under Earl Mulgrave - Viceregal "Progress" - Wholesale Liberation of Prisoners - Sir Harcourt Lees - The Statue of King William blown up - General Prosperity of the United Kingdom in the Winter of 1835 - 36.
  • Chapter: XXIX. Canada
    Canada - Rapid Increase of its Population and its Wealth - Lower Canada - Upper Canada - Mixture of Races: English and Scotch; Irish; Negroes and Men of Colour; Native Indians - Discontents among the Irish and Roman Catholic Population - Lord Aylmer recalled - Lord Amherst - Lord Gosford's Commission - Stoppage of the Supplies- Grievances - Agency of Mr. Roebuck - Violence of the Democratic Party - Papineau - Sir Francis Head, Governor of Upper Canada- Pacification of the Upper Province - Recall of Lord Gosford - Succeeded as Governor of the Lower Province by Sir J. Colborne.
  • Chapter: XXX.
    Condition of the Poor in Ireland - Sir George Nicholls's History of the Irish Poor Law - Hereditary Vagrancy and Social Disorder - Commission of Inquiry; its Reports - Existing Provision for the relief of the Poor - Enormous amount of Destitution - Remedies proposed - The Voluntary System - Dissentient Commissioners, Mr. Bicheno and Mr. Cornewall Lewis - Recommendation on the subject in the King's Speech - Three Poor Law Bills introduced - Mr. Poulett Scrope - Lord Morpeth - Mr. Nicholls's Mission to Ireland; his Instructions; his Inquiries - Signs of National Improvement - Demoralising Effects of Mendicity - Social Habits of the Peasantry - Support of the Poor thrown entirely on the Industrial Classes - Public Opinion in favour of a Legal Relief for the Poor - Subdivision of Land - Excess of Population - A Cycle of Evils - Workhouse Test - Mr. Nicholls's Report the Basis of the Irish Poor Law - The Measure introduced by Lord John Russell - Progress of the Measure in Parliament arrested by the Death of the King.
  • Chapter: XXXI.
    Agricultural and Commercial Interests in the House of Commons - Motion of Lord Chandos - Admission of Ladies to the House of Commons - The Budget - Feeble Condition of the Navy - Mr. Hume's Motion for the Reduction of the Military Force - Remission of Duties - O'Connell's Election for Dublin declared Void - English Church Reform - Royal Commission: its First Report on the Duties and Revenues of Bishops - Reports on Cathedral and Collegiate Churches - Establishment of the Board of Ecclesiastical Commissioners; its Constitution and Powers - State of the Church - Non-resident Incumbents - Unequal Distribution of Church Property; its aggregate Amount - Reduction of Episcopal Incomes - Livings in commendam - Translations - The Tithe Commissioners - Commutation of Tithes into a Rent Charge - The Marriage Act - General Registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths - Report of the Sclect Committee on the Subject - The Registration Act; its Provisions, Machinery, and Operations - The Vital Statistics of England - The Operation of the New Poor Law - The Workhouse Test - Reduction of Newspaper Stamp Duties - Excessive Commercial Speculation and Overtrading in 1836-7 - Gigantic Transactions in American Houses - Joint Stock Banks - Commercial Collapse in America and consequent Monetary Embarrassments in this Country - Paralysis of Trade - Bursting of Bubble Speculations - Our Foreign Relations - The Policy of Russia - Speech of Lord Dudley Stuart- Cracow - State of France - Attempt on the King's Life - The Infernal Machine - Arbitrary Measures of the Government - Freedom of the Press extinguished - Abolition of the Charter - Execution of Fieschi and his Accomplices - Limitation of the Elective Franchise - M. Thiers on the State of France and the Success of Louis Philippe's Government - Civil War in Spain - Insurrection at Madrid - The Constitution Proclaimed; its Principles - Honours voted to the Martyrs of Patriotism - Revolution in Portugal.
  • Chapter: XXXII.
    State of Parties in 1837 - Testimonial to Lord J. Russell - Speech of Lord Morpeth on the Whig Policy and its Results - Sir Robert Peel Lord Rector of the Glasgow University - Banquet to Messrs. Byng and Hume in Drury Lane Theatre - Opening of Parliament: the Royal Speech- Position of the Ministry - Irish Measures - Sheil on the Irish " Aliens " Bill for the Abolition of Church Rates - The King's Illness; his Death; his Character - Testimonies of Lord Melbourne, the Duke of Wellington, Earl Grey, and Sir Robert Peel-The Fitzclarences - Career of Mrs. Jordan - The Funeral Obsequies - Severance of the Crown of Hanover, which descended to the Duke of Cumberland.
  • Chapter: XXXIII. National Progress from 1820 to 1837
    National Progress from 1820 to 1837 - Population - Enumerations of the People; their Utility - The Irish Census of 1831 - Emigration - Rates of Increase - Advance in the well-being of Society - Employments of the People - Agriculture, Manufactures, and Commerce - Number of Males twenty years old and upwards - Relative Numbers employed in Agriculture and Manufactures, &c. - How the People lived: Food, Clothing, Dwellings - Enormous Increase of Consumption: Timber, Cotton, Wool - Home Production of Food: Difference between England and Ireland - Extent of the National Resources - Exports - Property Tax: Amount of Insurances - Improved House Accommodation - Cotton: its Production and Supply - The Spinning Jenny and the Mule - Power Looms - The Lace Manufacture - Progress of the Cotton Trade: its Social Effects - Increased Demand for Labour - Elevation of the Working Classes: General Prosperity - Indebtedness of England to Inventors - Foreign Competition - The Hosiery Manufacture - The Bobinet Manufacture - The Silk Trade - Evil of Protection - Smuggling - The Woollen Manufacture: its History - Foreign Competition - Progress of the Trade - British Wool - The Woollen Manufacture in Ireland - The Linen Manufacture in Ireland, Scotland, and England: its extraordinary Improvement and Progress - Employment of Children in Factories.
  • Chapter: XXXIV. National Progress (continued)
    National Progress (continued) - Mines - Iron - Coals - Mineral Produce- Mining Population - The Workers in Metals - Hardware - Birmingham - Sheffield - Exportation of Cutlery, &c. - Restrictions on Artisans, and on the Exportation of Machinery - Internal Communication - English Way-Power - Advantage of Water Communication - Iron Consumed on Roads - Horse Power - Macadamized Roads - Progress in Road Making - Bridges - Civilising Effect of Roads in Ireland - The Old Roads in England - The Horsham-Road - The G-eat Western Road - Holloway - The North Road - The Sussex Ways - Kennington - Road between Preston and Wigan - The Oxford Stage Coach - A "Fast Coach" - Effects of different Modes of Travelling upon National Manners and Habits - Primitive Stage Coaches - Carriage of Goods - Inequality of Prices - Internal Commerce - Fairs - Extension of Turnpike Roads- Rapid Increase of Travelling in the Reign of George IV. - Mail Coaches - The Railway System: its Origin and Progress - Immense Capital embarked in Railways - Railway Accidents - Railway Legislation- Enormous Parliamentary Expenses and Compensation for Land - The Railway Mania - Employment on Railways - Present Pre-eminence of Great Britain in the Mechanical and Industrial Arts - Inland Navigation - Steam Navigation: its Origin and Progress: its Social Advantages - Immense Increase of Travelling by Steamers - Steam Communication with the Continent and with India - The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company - The Development of the Coasting Trade - Improved Communication between England and Ireland - The Old System of Travelling to Ireland - The Route by Holyhead - The Welsh Roads - The New Road constructed by Mr. Telford - The Menai and Conway Suspension Bridges - The Harbours of Holyhead and Kingstown- Rapidity and Economy of the Present Modes of Travelling - Immense Traffic by Steamers across the Channel from most of the Ports of Ireland.
  • Chapter: XXXV. National Progress (continued)
    National Progress (continued) - Foreign Commerce - Necessity of Free Trade - Exports and Imports - Our Commerce with Africa - The Slave Trade - Our Commerce with India - Monopoly of the East India Company - The Coffee Trade - London Coffee-houses - China; the Tea Trade - Tea Duties - Currency - Coin - Inadequacy of a Metallic Currency - Paper Money - The Bank of England - Joint Stock Banks - The Public Revenue - The National Debt - Terminable Annuities - National Income and Expenditure - Cost of the National Defences - The Sinking Fund- Progress of the National Debt - Stocks - Paying Power of the English Nation - Its Sources - Work - Increase of Houses - Number and Cost of Domestic Servants - Carriages - Horses - Consumption of Candles - Property Insured against Fire - Life Insurance - Legacy and Probate Duties - Investments in House Property - The Value of Real Property rated for Income Tax - Savings Banks.
  • Chapter: XXXVI. Social Progress (continued)
    Social Progress (continued) - The Family - German View of the English Home - Houseless Population - Division of Population in Town and Country - Civilising Influence of Cities - Popular Education - Sunday Schools - Raikes - Day Schools - Lancaster - The British and Foreign School Society - The Monitorial System - Dr. Bell - The National Society - Progress of Popular Education - The Agency of the Religious Bodies- Auxiliary Action of the Government - Committee of the Privy Council on Education - Parliamentary Grants - Proportion of the Population attending School - Number of Children not at School - Average Time at School - The Improvement of Teachers - Training Colleges: their Cost - Endowed Schools and their Funds - The Enterprise and Resources of the Religious Bodies in Popular Education: the Church of England; the Independents; the Wesleyans; the Baptists; the Roman Catholics - Evening Schools - Literary and Scientific Institutions - The Social Influence of Sunday Schools - Progress of Education in Scotland and in Ireland - Evils of Popular Ignorance - Effects of Popular Education on Crime - Mitigation of the Criminal Code - Paucity of Educated Criminals - Educated Females.
  • Chapter: XXXVII. Social Progress (continued)
    Social Progress (continued) - The Religious Life of England - Mr. Horace Mann's Report on Religious Worship - Expansive Power and Vitality of the Church of England - Denominational Rivalry - Renewed Activity of Dissent; its Effect on the Established Church - Co-operation of the Voluntary Principle - Increase of Places of Worship - Church Extension; its Cost - Religious Societies in connection with the Establishment - The Evangelical Party - Missionary Operations - Nonconformist Communities - The Independents, their Institutions and Missions - The Baptists, their Institutions and Missions - The Wesleyan Methodists, and their Progress - The Centenary - Other Methodist Bodies - The Society of Friends - Unitarians - Moravians - Roman Catholics - Irvingites - Substantial Unity of Protestant Denominations - Societies based on the "Catholic" Principle - Church Accommodation - Number of Sittings required by the Population - Proportion furnished by the Dissenters - Proportion of Attendants in the different Denominations - Proportion of Attendants to Sittings - Numbers who neglect Public Worship - The Working Classes, their Religious Condition - Causes of their Estrangement from our Religious Institutions - Social Distinctions in Church - The Pew System - Free Seats - Proposed Remedies- Evidences of Social Reformation - The Leaders of Religious Progress- Exeter Hall.
  • Chapter: XXXVIII. Social Progress (continued)
    Social Progress (continued) - Leaders of Religious Progress - No Modern Church History - Bishop Bathurst - Dr. Blomfield appointed to Chester - Lady Spencer - State of that Diocese - Bishop Blomfield in Parliament - Dr. Blomfield's translation to London - King's College founded - The Church and the Dissenters - Ecclesiastical Reform- Church Extension - St. Paul's Cathedral - Religious Destitution in the East of London - Mr. Cotton - Reformation in Bethnal Green - Progress of Religious Opinion in Scotland; its Leaders: Dr. Andrew Thomson, Dr. John Brown, Dr. Hugh, Rev. Greville Ewing, Dr. Wardlaw, Dr. Russell, the two Haldanes; Thomas Erskine; Douglas of Cavers- Church and State - The Voluntary Controversy - Dr. Marshall-Dr. Chalmers - Church Extension in Scotland - Church Patronage - Non- Intrusion - The Veto Law - The Auchterarder Case - The Disruption and Establishment of the Free Church - Lectures in London on Church Establishments, by Dr. Chalmers, Dr. Wardlaw, and Dr. M'Neile - Improvement of the Bench of Bishops - The two Sumners - The Evangelical Movement - Counter Movement in Oxford - "The Tracts for the Times " - Drs. Pusey and Newman - The Independents: Dr. Fletcher; Dr. Bennett; Dr. Pye Smith; Rev. John Burnet; Rev. Thomas Binney; Dr. Andrew Reed; Dr. Leifchild; Dr. Morrison; Dr. Campbell; John Angell James; Dr. Raffles; Jay of Bath; Dr. M'All of Manchester; Dr. Vaughan; Dr. Harris; Isaac Taylor; John Williams; Moffat; Medhurst; Livingstone - The Baptists: Robert Hall; John Foster, the Essayist; Drs. Marshman and Carey - The Wesleyan Methodists: Dr. Bunting; Richard Watson; Thomas Jackson; Dr. Warren- Religious Leaders in Ireland - Bishop Doyle - The Roman Catholic Controversy - Missionary Societies - English Agencies - Evangelical Revival in the Church: Rev. B. W. Mathias; Rev. Peter Rowe; Rev. Robert Daly; Dr. Singer; Dr. Carlile; Dr. Stuart; Rev. William Cooper; Rev. W. Ilaweis Cooper; Dr. Urwick; Archbishop Whately.
  • Chapter: XXXIX. National Progress
    National Progress - Science and Art - Practical Tendencies of Modern Science - Mathematics - Astronomy - Sir William Herschel, Lord Rosse, Arago, Sir David Brewster - Light - Sir John Herschel, Sir William E. Hamilton, Dr. Lloyd, M'Cullagh, Mrs. Somerville, Daguerre, Mr. Fox Talbot - Photographic Art - Stereoscope - Wheatstone - Photographic Portraits - Heat - Cavendish, Dalton, Sir Humphry Davy, General Sir E. Sabine, Sir J. C. Boss - Points of Contact between Science and the Mechanical Arts - E. Stephenson - Tubular Bridges-Sir Mark Brunei - The Thames Tunnel - Calculating Machines - Mr. Babbage - The British Association for the Advancement of Science - Lord Brougham on Cheap Science - The Fine Arts - Architecture - Soane - The Freemasons' Hall - Barry - The Palace of Westminster - Pugin: his Principal Works - Revival of Gothic Architecture - Painting - Cognoscenti - The National Gallery - The Elgin Marbles - Turner, Lawrence, Wilkie, Haydon - Sculpture - Government Patronage of Art - Academies and Exhibitions - Art Collections - Civilising Influence of the Fine Arts - Historians: Sir James Mackintosh, Dr. Lingard, Henry Hallam, Napier - Despatches of the Duke of Wellington - Thomas Moore - Lockhart - Jurisprudence and Political Economy: Mill, Bowring, Burton, Whately, Sadler, and Senior - Miscellaneous Writers: De Quincey, Hazlitt, William Howitt, J. C. Loudon - Serial Works: " Constable's Miscellany," "The Family Library," " Sacred Classics; " " Edinburgh Cabinet Library," " The Library of Entertaining Knowledge," The Useful Knowledge Society, "Chambers's Journal," "The Penny Magazine," "The Penny Cyclopaedia " - Quarterly Reviews and Monthly Magazines - Periodical Literature - Poetry and Fiction: Lady Blessington, Lady Morgan, Mrs. Hemans, Miss Landon, Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Southey, Mrs. Barrett-Browning, Mrs. Howitt, Robert Pollok, John Wilson- Dramatic Writers: Sheridan Knowles, Lord Lytton, Mr. Justice Talfourd - Prose Fictions - Statistics of Novels in the British Museum - Literary Women - Manners and Castoms - Costume and Fashions in the Reign of George IV. - Good Society - Almack's - Introduction of Trousers and Black Ties - New Dances - Habits of Society - Dinners - Drinking Habits - Hyde Park - Dandies and their Dress - Changes of Fashion - Gentlemen's Dresses - Ladies' Dresses in the Reign of George IV. - Revolution of Fashion in the Reign of William IV.
  • Chapter: XL. Accession of Queen Victoria
    Accession of Queen Victoria - The Queen's Address to the Privy Council - The King of Hanover - Lord Melbourne and the Queen - Lord Brougham's Speech - The Civil List - The Queen's first Speech to the Parliament - The General Election - The Queen at the Lord Mayor's Banquet - The New Parliament - Rebellion in Lower Canada - America sympathises with the Insurgents - Lord Durham Lord High Commissioner; His Difficulties and Mistakes; His Ordinance; Disallowed by Parliament; His Resignation - Lord Durham's Report on the North American Colonies - The Colonial Question - Sir William Molesworth - Wisdom of Lord Durham's Policy - Renewal of the Insurrection- American Sympathisers - American Government - Mr. Roebuck - The New Canadian Constitution - Advantages of Self-government - Introduction of the Irish Poor Relief Bill - Opposition of Mr. O'Connell - Pauperism in Holland and Belgium - Workhouse at Amsterdam - The Belgian Peasantry contrasted with those of Ireland - The Bill in the Lords - Alarm of the Irish Peers - The Bill passes and receives the Royal Assent - Organisation and Working of the System.
  • Chapter: XLI. Our Colonial Administration
    Our Colonial Administration - Sir William Molesworth's Motion - Lord Palmerston's Defence of the Colonial Secretary - West Indian Slavery - The Slave Trade - Lord Brougham's Oration - Horrors of the Middle Passage - Negroes thrown Overboard - Lord Minto's Defence of Naval Officers - Portugal a Standing Nuisance on the Ocean- Iniquities of the Apprenticeship System in the West Indies - Eleven Females murdered by a Flogging and the Treadmill - Attempt to establish Slavery in British Guiana - Coolies - Lord Brougham's Resolutions on the Subject - The Roman Catholic Oath - Mr. O'Connell's Interpretation - The Bishop of Exeter - Lord Melbourne on Oaths of Office - The Pope's Disapproval of the Roman Catholic Oath - Conservative Banquet to Sir Robert Peel - His Exposition of his Policy - Irish Questions - The Church Establishment and the Corporations- Sir Thomas Ackland's Resolution on the Appropriation Clause - Alleged Breach of Faith on the part of the Conservatives - Denied by Lord Stanley and Sir Robert Peel - Scene in the Commons - Settlement of the Irish Questions - Preparation for the Queen's Coronation - The Marquis of Londonderry - Earl Fitzwilliam - The Procession to Westminster Abbey - The Ceremonial - Return of the Procession - Public Festivities.
  • Chapter: XLII. Foreign Policy of the Government
    Foreign Policy of the Government - Intervention in Spain - The British Legion to serve the Queen of Spain - Debate in the Commons on the Foreign Enlistment Act - Defeat of the British Legion - Vindication of the Legion by Sir De Lacy Evans - Trades Unions, Combinations, and Strikes - Lord Ashley's Bill for the Better Regulation of Factories thrown out - Resolution on same subject lost - Report of Select Committee on Pensions charged on the Civil List - Extraordinary Delusion of John Nicholls Thom; Riots in consequence; his Death; Trial of his Abettors; Discussion on the Matter in the Commons - Inquiry into the Religious Condition of the Peasantry - Prorogation of Parliament - Address of the Speaker to the Queen - The Queen's Speech - Review of the Session - Pamphlet on Lord Melbourne's Position with regard to the Queen.
  • Chapter: XLIII. Trades Combinations
    Trades Combinations - Strike of the Cotton Spinners' Association at Glasgow - Arrest of the Secret Committee - Organised Assassination- Oath of the Association - The Cotton Spinners' Trial - The Policy of Strikes; Encouraged by the Masters; their General Success - The Darg - English Parties - Ireland the Cardinal Point of English Politics - Meeting of Parliament - The Queen's Speech - Illegal Meetings - Chartism; its Rise and Progress - The Six Points - Speech of Mr. Stephens - Communism - The Chartist Petition - Chartist Demonstrations - Grand Moral Demonstration on Kersal Moor - Chartist Propositions - Chartist Riots at Birmingham - Arrest of Dr. Taylor - More Riots at Birmingham - Chartist Meetings at Manchester - Forced Contributions - Letter of the Home Secretary - The Sacred Month Abandoned - Meeting at Kennington Common - Chartist Trials at Chester - Trial of Mr. Stephens - Dissolution of the National Convention - The Monmouth Insurrection - Frost, Williams, and Jones - Trial and Sentence of the Prisoners.
  • Chapter: XLIV. Ireland
    Ireland - Assassination of Lord Norbury - Speech of Lord Oxmantown on the State of the Country - " Property has its Duties as well as its Rights" - Mr. O'Connell - The Precursor Association - Banquets in Dublin and Drogheda - Attack on the Irish Government by Mr. Shaw, Recorder of Dublin - Lord Morpeth's Defence of the Government - O'Connell's Assault on the Irish Tories - Lord Roden's Motion for a Select Committee on the State of Ireland - Lord Normanby's Defence of his Government - Diminution of Crime - Liberation of Prisoners - Condemnation of the Government by the Lords - O'Connell's prodigious Activity as an Agitator, in order to keep out the Tories - Resolution of Lord John Russell on the Policy of the Irish Government – Sir R. Peel's Amendment - Monster Debate on Ireland - Lord J. Russell and Sir R. Peel on the Causes of Irish Crime - Speech of Lord Morpeth - Increase in the Value of Land in Ireland and of other Property - Defiance of the Opposition - Remarkable Speech of Mr. Sheil - Majority in favour of Government - Suspension of the Constitution of Jamaica- Virtual Defeat of the Cabinet - Resignation of Lord Melbourne - Sir R. Peel fails in his Attempt to form an Administration - The Ladies of the Bed-chamber - Sir R. Peel's Explanation - Lord John Russell's Reply - Remarks on the same Subject by Lord Melbourne, the Duke of Wellington, and Macaulay.
  • Chapter: XLV.
    Resignation of the Speaker - Election of Mr. Shaw Lefevre as his Successor - National Education - Proposed Normal Schools - Committee of the Privy Council - Difficulties on account of Religion - The Right of Inspection - Objections to Government Control over Popular Education - Speech of Lord Stanley - Lord Morpeth's Reply - Speech of Mr. Wyse on the Evils of Popular Ignorance - Mr. C. Buller on the Claims of the Church as a National Educator - Mr. O'Connell on United Education- - The Education Question in the House of Lords - Resolution against the Order in Council - The Lords' Remonstrance to the Queen - Her Majesty's Reply - The System of Penny Postage - Mr. Rowland Hill's Pamphlet on Post Office Reform - Postal Statistics - Opposition of the Post Office Authorities to Mr. Hill's Plan - A Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1838 - The New Postal Law - Impediments to its Working - Results of the First Two Years - Review of the Session by Lord Lyndhurst - Lord Melbourne's Defence of the Government - Re-construction of the Cabinet - The Prorogation - The Queen's Speech - Banquet to the Duke of Wellington - Lord Brougham's Eulogium - Tory Disloyalty - Party Spirit in the Army - Loyal Demonstrations in Ireland - Announcement of the Queen's Marriage - The Case of Lady Flora Hastings.
  • Chapter: XLVI.
    Opening of the Session of 1840 - The Queen's Speech - The Approaching Royal Marriage - Protestantism of the Prince - The Address, and Her Majesty's Reply - Naturalisation of the Prince - His Precedence - His Income - Proposal of Fifty Thousand Pounds - Speech of Sir Robert Peel - Defeat of the Government - The House of Commons and the Queen's Bench - The Great Privilege Question - Actions against the Printers of the House of Commons - The Sheriffs Arrested for Contempt - Proceedings relating to the Privileges of the House - An Act for Authorising the Publication of Parliamentary Papers - Great Debate on Want of Confidence in the Ministry - Speeches of Sir J. Y. Buller, Sir George Grey, Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Lytton, Lord Howick, Sir James Graham, Mr. Macaulay, Lord Stanley, Lord Morpeth, Sir Robert Peel, and Lord John Russell.
  • Chapter: XLVII. The Queen's Marriage
    The Queen's Marriage - The Procession - The Ceremony - Reception of the Queen and Prince Albert at Windsor - Their Return to Buckingham Palace - Attempted Assassination of the Queen - Public Excitement caused by this Event - Arrest of the Assassin, Edward Oxford - Extraordinary Demonstrations of Loyalty - Trial of Oxford for High Treason - Proofs of the Prisoner's Insanity - The Jury found the Prisoner " Guilty, he being at the same time Insane."
  • Chapter: XLVIII. Rupture with China
    Rupture with China - Our Commercial Relations with that Country - Opening of the Trade - The Opium Trade - Smuggling - Commissioner Lin - Destruction of Opium - Trade with England absolutely forbidden - Blockade of Canton - Seizure of Chusan - Sir James Graham's Resolutions on our Commercial Relations with China - Importance of our Trade with China - Vast Resources of the Chinese Empire - Chinese Jealousy of England - The Miseries of a Chinese War - Charges against the Government for their Conduct in relation to China - Answered by Mr. Macaulay - The Old System of Commercial Intercourse - Outrageous Proceedings of Commissioner Lin - Defence of the War by Sir G. Staunton - Mr. Gladstone's Denunciation of the Opium Trade - Chinese Atrocities - Poisoning the Wells - Speech of Sir Robert Peel - Neglect of the Government - Lord Palmerston's Defence of the Government - Hostilities at Canton - Blockade of the English Factories - Attack on the Black Joke Schooner - Submission of the British Commissioner - Naval Engagement between the Chinese and the English - Poisoned Tea - Rewards for the Heads of the English - Attempt to burn the British Shipping - Capture of the City of Tinghae.
  • Chapter: XLIX. Progress of the Chinese War
    Progress of the Chinese War - Keshin, the Imperial Commissioner - His Duplicity - Convention between him and the British Plenipotentiary- Violated by the Chinese, and Disallowed by both Governments - Attack on Canton - Wrath of the Emperor - Report of Keshin on the National Defences - The Emperor's Reply - Second Attack on Canton, and Capture of the Forts - Suspension of Hostilities - Unsatisfactory Arrangement - Sir Henry Potfinger, the new Plenipotentiary - Vigorous Prosecution of the War - Capture of Amoy - Advance of the Squadron into the Interior - Capture of Chin-hae, Ning-po, and Chapou - Arrival of the Armament at Chin-Keang-Foo, which is taken by Assault - Nankin - Suspension of Hostilities - Negotiations for Peace - Terms of the Treaty - Report of the Chinese Commissioner to the Emperor.
  • Chapter: L. Political Tranquillity
    Political Tranquillity - Position of the Ministry - The Royal Speech- Debates on the Address - The Syrian Expedition - Speeches of Lord Brougham, Lord Melbourne, and the Duke of Wellington - Speech of Mr. Grote in the House of Commons - Reply of Lord John Russell on the "Finality" - Amendment by Mr. Hume - Speech of Sir Robert Peel - Vote of Thanks to Admiral Sir Robert Stopford for the Capture of Acre - The Turkish Fleet delivered up to Admiral Stopford by the Pasha of Egypt, who is Confirmed in his possessions as Hereditary Viceroy of Egypt - The English Poor Law - Ministerial Bill to Continue the Commission - Debate on the Second Reading - Election of Mr. Walter for Nottingham - Operation of the Irish Poor Law - Registration of Voters in Ireland - Bills of Lord Stanley and Lord Morpeth - Proposed Extension of the Franchise in Ireland - Diminution of Irish Electors - The Government Measure carried after Four Nights' Debate by a Majority of Five - Lord Howick's proposed Franchise carried in Committee - Defeat of the Government - Jewish Disabilities - Defeat of the Bill by the Lords - The Scotch Non-intrusion Question in the House of Lords - Sir Robert Peel proposes a Vote of Want of Confidence in the Government - Defeat of the Government by a Majority of One - Dissolution of Parliament - State of Parties - Lord Melbourne appeals to the Country - The General Election - Conservative Majority - Opening of the New Parliament - The Royal Speech - Vote of Want of Confidence in the Lords - Testimony of the Duke of Wellington to the Importance of the Services of a Peculiar Nature rendered by Lord Melbourne to the Queen - No Confidence Vote in the House of Commons carried by a Majority of Ninety-one - Sir R. Peel Master of the Situation - Resignation of the Melbourne Cabinet - The Peel Ministry - Prorogation of Parliament.
  • Chapter: LI. History of Free Trade
    History of Free Trade - Introduction - England the Cradle of Commercial Liberty - Adam Smith's Despair of Complete Freedom - Protectionist Fallacies of Great Statesmen - Lord Bacon's Erroneous Views - Dean Swift - Tyrannous Interference with Trade in Medieval Times - The "Liber Albus " - Vexatious Regulation of Domestic Trade and Commerca in the City of London - The Monopolies granted by Queen Elizabeth - Agitation for Freedom of Trade in Elizabeth's Reign - Remarkable Speech of Cecil - Abandonment of the System of " Patents" - Public Statutes preventing Free Trade in Labour - The Statute of Labourers - Oppressive Laws to prevent Rise of Wages: consequent Misery of the People - Sir F. Eden's " State of the Poor " - Statutes for Regulating Labour in the Reign of George III. - Legislative Interference with the Button Trade - Unlawful Buttons - Ridiculous Regulation of Industry - Bad Effects of Monopolies on National Character - Repeal of Assize on Bread and the Combination Laws - The Statute of Apprenticeship- Prejudice against Foreign Workmen - Competitive Examinations.
  • Chapter: LII. The History of Free Trade
    The History of Free Trade (Introduction continued) - Customs and Excise Laws - Origin of Free Trade Ideas - Protectionist Doctrines - The " Commercial " System - Policy of Restriction - Beginning of the Great Commercial Reform - Pitt's leaning towards Free Trade - Ridiculous Character of our Tariff before his Time - Pitt's Commercial Reforms Defeated by the War - Difficulties of the British Merchant under the old Custom House Laws - Sketch of the History of the Corn Laws - Selfishness of the Landowners - Cruel Prohibition of Cheap Food - Government Rewards for making Bread Scarce - Popular Remedies for the Scarcity of Bread - Alleged Agricultural Distress - Passing of the Corn Law of 1815 - Corn Law Riots-Great Excitement throughout the Country - Members of Parliament attacked in the Streets - Effects of the Law - The Free Trade Petition of the Merchants of London in 1820 - Lord Liverpool's Reply - Lord Stanley's early Advocacy of Free Trade - Parliamentary Inquiries into the State of the Foreign Trade - Mr. Huakisson and Mr. Canning's Reforms - Number of Duties for Protection of the Landlord's Interests - Failure of the Corn Laws to Improve the Farmer's Circumstances - Identity of the Interests of Landed and Manufacturing Classes - Cost of "Protection" to the People - Difference between Manufacturing and Agricultural Restriction.
  • Chapter: LIII. History of Free Trade
    History of Free Trade (continued) - The Commercial Reforms during Lord Liverpool's Administration - Mr. Secretary Peel's support of Mr. Huskisson's Free Trade Measures - Circumstances which preceded the Corn Law of 1828 - Mr. Canning's betrayal of the Free Traders - The Duke of Wellington's sudden change of views on Corn Law Repeal- Establishment of the Sliding Scale - The Excise and Stamp Law Reforms, 1830-1840; Mr. Goulburn, Lord Althorp, Sir Henry Parnell - The Almanack Duty; Sketch of its History and Effects - The Pamphlet Duty - The Newspaper Stamp - Struggles for a Free Press - Early Advocates of Free Trade in Newspapers - Paper Duty - Candle Duty - Duty on Starch - Duty on Sweets and Mead; Folly of these Taxes proved by results of Repeal - Tariff Reforms - Coal Duty - Timber Duty - The Corn Law Question - Distress of the People - Severe Winter of 1838 - Indifference of the Chartists to the Free Trade Movement - Selfishness of the Agricultural Interest - Mr. Villiers; his first Annual Motion for Inquiry into the Corn Laws - Debate of 15th March, 1838 - Sir William Molesworth, the Marquis of Chandos, Sir H. Parnell, the Earl of Darlington, Mr. Clay, Mr. Gaily Knight, Mr. Cayley - Mr. Disraeli's Defence of Protection - Apathy of the Country - Signs of Awakening.
  • Chapter: LIV. The Corn Laws
    Spirit of Opposition to the Corn Laws in the Manufacturing Districts - Free Trade Tendencies of Manchester - Meeting of Merchants in that Town in 1834 - Persistence of the New Borough in returning Free Trade Candidates - Condition of the People in Manchester during the abundant years 1832-35 - Sudden Distress on Failure of the Harvest in 1836- 38 - Perseverance of the Landed Party in resisting all Change - Rejection of the Bill for permitting the Grinding of Wheat in Bond- Supposed Last Dying Speech of the Advocates of Free Trade in Corn- Mr. Villiers's solemn Warning of the Danger of Refusing Relief - The "East Retford of the Corn Laws " - Glasgow Petition presented by Earl Fitzwilliam - Temper of the House of Lords - Remarkable Declaration of Lord Melbourne - Public Dinner to Dr. Bowring at Manchester- Formation of the Anti-Corn Law Association - Modest Commencement of the Movement - The Provisional Committee - Mr. Bright, Richard Cobden - The Bolton Lecture on the Corn Laws - Movement in the Manchester Chamber of Commerce - The Association's Scheme of Agitation - Progress of the Movement - Humble Origin of the League - Room in Newall's Buildings - Rapid Spread of the Agitation- Movement in the Metropolis - Attitude of the Working Classes - Advocacy by the Tïmes - Meeting of the Manchester Delegates in London- Opening of the Session - Omission of the Corn Laws from the Queen's Speech - Debate on the Address - Lord Brougham's Great Speech - Rejection of the Petition of the Delegates to be heard at the Bar of the House - Condition of the Movement at the Close of 1839.
  • Chapter: LV.
    Coal Trade - Employment of Children - Lord Ashley's Bill - Attempt of Francis on the Life of the Queen: he is Transported for Life - Similar Attempt by a Deformed Youth - Change in the Law respecting Attacks on the Sovereign - Lord Ashburton's Treaty with America - Oregon Boundary - Right of Search - Repudiation of Debts by Pennsylvania- Rev. Sydney Smith - Mr. Everett, Mr. Webster - War in Afghanistan - Earl of Ellenborough - General Pollock joins Brigadier Wild.
  • Chapter: LVI.
    Lord Ellenborough appointed Governor-General in the room of Lord Auckland - The Garrison of Peshawur - Occupation and abandonment of the Khyber Pass - Arrival of General Pollock at Peshawar- Demoralised State of the Troops - The Garrison at Jelalabad - Its Difficulties - Holds a Council of War - Proposals to Surrender Resisted by Colonel Broadfoot - The Defences - Destructive Earthquake - Restoration of the Fortifications - Advance of General Pollock to the Relief of the Garrison - The Khyber Pass forced - Destruction of the Afghan Camp by the Garrison at Jelalabad, and utter Rout of Besiegers - Votes of Thanks to the Army by both Houses of Parliament - Proclamation of Lord Ellenborough - His Efforts to save India - The English Prisoners - Measures taken for their recovery by Sir Robert Sale - Sufferings of the Captives - They agree to purchase their own Ransom - The Bond - Glad Tidings - Arrival of Sir Robert Sale and his Column of Liberators - Joyful Congratulations - Submission of the Hostile Chiefs - Measures of Retribution - Capture of Istaliff, containing the Afghan Women and Treasures - Punishment inflicted on Cabul - Proclamation of Lord Ellenborough reversing our Indian Policy - Restoration of the Gates of Somnauth - Absurd and Mischievous Proclamation of the Governor-General.
  • Chapter: LVII.
    Mr. Villiers's Motion again Defeated - The Association becomes the Anti- Corn-Law League - The Anti-Corn-Law Circular - The League Agitation - Colonel Thompson - Ebenezer Elliott, the Corn-Law Rhymer - Obstructions to the League Missionaries - Riots at the Anti-Corn-Law Lectures - Attacks of the Press upon the League - Government interference with the Anti-Corn-Law Circular - Great Banquet in the Temporary Pavilion at Manchester - Deputations to the Government and to the Conservative Leaders - Mr. Villiers's Motion in 1840 - Food Riots in Ireland - Change of Tactics of the League - The Walsall Election - The Chartists hired to obstruct the League - The Import Duties Report - Government Proposition of a Fixed Duty - Failure of Government Appeal to the Country as Free Traders - Lord Sydenham's remarkable Prophecy - Wide-spread Distress in the Country - Sir Robert Peel's Sliding Scale - Secession of the Duke of Buckingham - Procession of Anti-Corn-Law Delegates to the House - Financial Statement of Sir Robert Peel - Details of the New Corn Law - Mr. Cobden returned for Stockport - Dissatisfaction of the Country with the Sliding Scale - The Minister burned in Effigy - Proposal for an Income Tax - Great Reform of the Tariff - Conversion of Sir Robert Peel to Free Trade Principles - Dissatisfaction of Supporters of the Government - The " Velveteen Plot " - The Sugar Duties - Position of the Government on the Free Trade Question at the close of the Session of 1842.
  • Chapter: LVIII.
    The Session of 1843 - Assassination of Mr. Drummond, Secretary of Sir Robert Peel - Prejudice against the League - Attack of the Quarterly Review on the Anti-Corn-Law Agitators - The Speeches of the League Orators condemned in the House of Lords - Charge of Sir Robert Peel against Mr. Cobden of encouraging Assassination - Excited Scene in the Commons - Mr. Cobden's Explanation - Mr. Villiers' Motion Renewed - Uproar in the House - Operations of the League - Meetings at Drury Lane Theatre - Mr. Kohl's Description of the League - Meetings at Covent Garden Theatre - Public Adhesion of the Marquis of Westminster to the League - Progressin the Agricultural Districts - The League's Freehold Land Scheme - Tie Times' Recognition of the League as a Great Fact - The Session of 1844 - Mr. Cobden's Motion for Inquiry into Effects of Protective Duties - Mr. Villiers' Motion in 1844 - Feeble Policy of Lord J. Russell - Parliamentary Progress of the League Movement.
  • Chapter: LIX.
    Mr. Goulburn's Financial Statement in 1844 - Great Debate on the Sum Duties - Defeat and Re-instatement of the Ministers - Mr. Disraeli's Attack on Sir E. Peel - Schism in the Tory Party - Temporary Revival of Prosperity - Rick-burning and "Richmondism" - 'The Landowners' "Anti-League League" - Speech of Mr. Bright at Covent Garden Theatre-Parliamentary Session, 1845 - The Second Great Free Trade Budget - Increased Estrangement between Sir Robert Peel and the Ultra-Conservatives - Mr. M'Cullagh Torrens' Description of the League - Mr. Miles's Motion - Debate on Mr. Villiers' Motion, 1845 - Significant Speech of Sir J. Graham - The Potato Disease - Crisis in the Cabinet - Lord J. Russell's Letter to the Electors of the City of London - Resignation of Sir Robert Peel - Lord J. Russell's Failure to form a Government - Recall of Sir R. Peel - Immense Subscriptions to the League Fund - Re-assembling of Parliament - The Queen's Speech - Excitement in the House of Lords - Debate on the Address in the Commons - Sir R. Peel's Statement of his Commercial Policy - Great Debate on the Corn-Law Importation Bill - Final Triumph of Free Trade - Lord Stanley's Prediction of the Downfall of the Peel Administration - Farewell Speech of Sir R. Peel - Dissolution of the League- Conclusion of the Struggle.
  • Chapter: LX.
    The Repeal Agitation - Debate in the Dublin Corporation - O'Connell in Conciliation Hall - The Temperance Movement - The "Monster Meetings" - The Roman Catholic Bishops all Repealers - O'Connell's Defence of the Army at Tara - Debates in Parliament - Speech of the Dublin Recorder - Dismissal of the Repeal Magistrates - Motion on the Subject by Lord Clanricarde - Speech of the Duke of Wellington on the Repeal Agitation - Speech of Lord Brougham on the Evils of Irish Agitation - Motion by Mr, Smith O'Brien - Speech of Lord Eliot - The Irish Arms Bill passed - The Repeal Agitation denounced in the Speech from the Throne - Revolutionary Scheme of the Repeal Association - Arbitration Courts Established - The Teetotal Organisation - Proposed Monster Meeting at Clontarf - Forbidden by Proclamation - Military Preparations of the Government - Counter-Proclamation by O'Connell - Arrest of O'Connell and his Colleagues - O'Connell becomes Pacific and Conciliatory - The Monster Trial and its Incidents - The Repeal Martyrs in Prison - Judgment Reversed by the House of Lords - Liberation of the Prisoners - Triumphal Procession - Speech of O'Connell - Rejoicings in the Country - Effect of the Imprisonment on O'Connell's Mind and Policy - Mr. Smith O'Brien - "Young Ireland" - Rupture in the Association - The Irish Confederation - Reception of O'Connell in London - Discussions in Parliament on the State of Ireland - Speech of Sir Robert Peel - The Queen.
  • Chapter: LXI. The Irish Crisis, 1846-47
    The Irish Crisis, 1846-47 - Land Tenure - The Devon Commission - Condition of the Agricultural Labourers - Subdivision of Land - The Conacre System - Partial Failure of the Potatoes in 1845 - Total Blight in 1846 - Its immediate Effects - Progress of the Famine - Sketches of its Victims - Exertions of the Society of Friends - Human Burrows - Appalling Pictures of Misery and Degradation - The Famine in Ulster, Munster, Cork - Frightful Mortality - The Public Coffin - Demoralising Effects of the Famine - Neglect of the Dead - Abuses in the Distribution of Relief - Universal Mendicity - Intimidation - Estimated Loss on the Failure of the Potato Crop - Government Measures for Relief- Railway Scheme of Lord George Bentinck.
  • Chapter: LXII. The Famine
    The Famine - Government Measures of Relief - Inadequacy of the Poor Law System - Vast Extent of the Unions - The Public Works - Abuses and Demoralisation - Enormous Expenditure of Public Money - The Temporary Relief Act - Gratuitous Rations to Three Millions of People- Mr. Trevelyan, Secretary of the Treasury, on the Irish Crisis - Exertions and Influence of Father Mathew; his Appeal to the English Government - Effect of the Temperance Movement in preserving the Public Peace during the Famine - Intemperance encouraged at the Relief Works - Organisation of Relief Committees - Gradual Decrease of the Famine - Measures adopted for the Mitigation of the Famine Fever - Consumption of Indian Corn during the Distress-The "British Association " - Munificence of the United States - Exertions of Private Individuals - Tabular View of Contributions during the Famine.

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