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Northern Africa. page 2

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Morocco, a country inhabited by the most fanatical of all adherents of Islam, was formed into one empire in 1692 under Muley (Mulai, "my Lord") Ismail, after being subject to many successive dynasties since the 8th century, with almost continuous civil and foreign wars and revolutions. This most backward of semi-civilised countries, freed from Christian slavery and government-piracy since 1822, has still piratical subjects, and a slave-trade in full vigour, with negroes openly sold in the streets of the ports and in the market-towns of the interior. In 1859 war with Spain arose through the attacks of Moorish mountain-tribes on Spanish fortified posts on the Mediterranean shores, as Ceuta (opposite to Gibraltar), taken by Spain in 1580, Melilla, and Alhucemas. The Spanish forces, under Marshal O'Donnell and General Prim, landed at Ceuta at the end of the year, after the place had been subject to many attacks of the enemy, and the Spanish troops there had suffered severe loss from desultory fighting, and from cholera and other disease. In the first days of 1860, during an advance southwards on Tetuan, the Moors were defeated at Castillejos, and on February 4th a strong position in front of Tetuan, held by 30,000 men, was brilliantly stormed by the Spaniards, and the town was occupied three days later. The enemy then began to negotiate, really preparing to renew the struggle, and at the end of March fighting, successful for the invaders, took place to the south-west of Tetuan, the Moors being driven, after an obstinate resistance - sabre to bayonet - from strong heights dotted with villages. Peace was then concluded with the payment of 4,000,000 pounds war-indemnity to Spain, and some surrender of territory.

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Pictures for Northern Africa. page 2

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