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Cassells Illustrated History of England


From the overthrow of Louis Philippe th the affair of the "Trent"

This, the Eighth Volume of our History of England, brings the story of our country's vicissitudes and triumphs down to a period within the memory of nearly every one now living. The last Volume of this History was chiefly occupied with the record of Parliamentary contests, and the gradual progress in the country of those principles of Free-trade and enlightenment which found their temporary culmination in the repeal of the Corn Laws, and the passing of Lord John Russell's Bill for the extension of the Franchise in 1832. As, in due course, we read of these triumphs in social and political progress, so full of hope and promise, we might naturally have expected that to record the increasing growth of these principles would have been the chief task of an historian of modern times. But so varied are the fortunes of any great nation, that having devoted the greater portion of our last Volume to the records of peaceful industry and internal progress, we have in this Volume to assign the chief portion of our space to the annals of war. The earlier Indian campaigns, with which the brilliant achievements of Gough are ever associated, seem to have been the commencement of a series of wars, of which it is questionable whether we have yet seen the end. These will be found faithfully and accurately recorded in this Volume. The wars which naturally call for the most minute record of their progress are those in the Crimea, the Indian Mutiny, and the Italian Struggle for Independence; to these, therefore, a very considerable portion of our space has been devoted. The narrative of the Crimean War which we have here given will, we believe, be found one of the most complete and impartial records of that brief though intensely interesting campaign. We have not confined ourselves to a mere record of battles and an obituary of generals; we have endeavoured to trace the origin of this war from those complications arising out of the enfeebled condition of Turkey, and the natural ambition of every European nation either to become themselves the possessors, or, at least, to prevent others from being sole masters, of the great highway to the East. While particular attention has been given to minutely recording the Allied Campaign against Russia, the home policies of France and England, which so much influenced the actions of their respective commanders, have not been lost sight of, but are recorded with care, so as to show the reader the real source of certain actions, which, viewed from a partial stand-point, would seem inexplicable. The same course has been followed in treating of the Indian and Italian Wars. The causes which led to the outbreak of mutiny amongst the native troops in India are accurately stated, as well as the changes which have been made in the administration of our government in that country. Similarly, in the case of the Italian Revolutions, the evidences of the long-smouldering embers of revolution are pointed out. In this case, however, it will be the duty of future historians to record the final triumph of those principles whose early successes in Italy we have endeavoured to depict.

In the concluding chapter of the Volume, the subject of the great conflict which for a time rent in twain the American union is taken up, and pursued to the end of 1861. An attempt is made to trace secession to its true causes, and to supply materials for forming an impartial judgment upon the political and ethical character of the movement, as well as upon the motives of those who opposed it.

Such are a few of the more remarkable topics treated of in this Volume, but there are others of less renown, though not of less importance; such as the Parliamentary and Diplomatic History of Queen Victoria's reign, the History of Social Progress, Intellectual Advancement, Commercial Prosperity, and Manufacturing Industry, and a host of other topics which cannot be enumerated under any general categories. To each and all of these a space of this History is devoted, proportionate to their relative importance and interests.

In a subsequent Volume it is intended to carry down the History of England to a date ten or eleven years later, so as to present the reader with a connected view of the events of a period which, though one of undisturbed industrial and commercial development for England, witnessed greater changes on the continent of Europe than have ever happened within an equal number of years - a period during which Austria was crushed and expelled from Germany, the Italian kingdom extended everywhere to the Mediterranean and to the Alps, Denmark despoiled, the Russian serfs emancipated, the house of Bourbon expelled from Spain, and the fabric of the Napoleonic empire shattered into dust amidst the defeat, humiliation, and dismemberment of France.

Table of content

  • Chapter: I. Louis Philippe
    The French Revolution - Louis Philippe - Guizot - Resistance to Reform- Corruption of the Government - Criminals in High Places - M. Teste - Duke de Praslin - Unpopularity of the Government - The Prince de Joinville on his Father's Policy - The Spanish Marriages - Solemn Warnings - Flattering Assurances - The Reform Banquet prohibited - The King's Obstinacy - Impeachment of the Ministers - Excitement of the People - Resignation of Guizot - A Reform Administration announced - Public Rejoicings - The Troops fire on the People - Funeral Procession of the Victims - Insurrection in Paris - Abdication of the King - Proposal of a Regency - "Too late " - The Duchess of Orleans in the Chamber of Deputies - A Republic proclaimed - Sacking of the Tuileries and the Palais Royal, - Respect of the Rioters for the Duchess of Orleans - Flight of the King and Queen to England - Character and Death of Louis Philippe - Proclamation of a Provisional Government - All Vestiges of Royalty destroyed - The Red Republic - De Lamartine - The Constituent Assembly - The French Republic solemnly pro claimed - " Organisation of Labour" - Insurgent Movement of the Red Republicans - Movement in favour of Louis Napoleon - The National Workshops, and their ruinous Effects - Distress of the Working Classes - Insurrection and Street Fighting in Paris - General Cavaignac Dictator - Death of the Archbishop of Paris on a Barricade - The Insurrection suppressed - Louis Napoleon a Member of the National Assembly - His Election as President of the Republic.
  • Chapter: II. Effects of the French Revolution - England
    Effects of the French Revolution in Great Britain and Ireland - The Chartist Agitation - The National Convention - Disturbances at Glasgow - The Monster Petition - Intended English Revolution - Proposed Monster Meeting on Kennington Common - Notice by the Police Commissioners - Alarm of the Metropolis - The 10th of April - Special Constables - Means of Defence taken by the Duke of Wellington - Fortifications of the Public Buildings, &c. - Procession of the National Convention with the Monster Petition - The Meeting at the Common - Feargus O'Connor and the Police Commissioners - Collapse of the Demonstration - Dispersion of the Meeting - The Crowds stopped on the Bridges - Triumph of Order - The Chartist Petition presented - Exposure of Enormous Frauds connected with it - Renewed Agitation in London - Alarming Demonstrations - Arrest of the Chartist Leaders - Prosecution and Conviction of Cuffey and his Associates - Spies and Informers - The New Parliament - Crime in Ireland - Increased Powers granted to the Executive - Mr. Horsman on Irish Coercion - The Murder of Major Mahon - Altar Denunciations - Illness and Death of Daniel O'Connell - Sketch of his Life.
  • Chapter: III. Ireland
    Ireland - Viceroyalty of Lord Clarendon - Disturbed state of the Country - Special Commission in Limerick, Clare, and Tipperary - Concluding Address of the Lord Chief Justice on the State of the Country - The Irish Rebellion of 1848 - Leaders of the Young Ireland Party - The Nat ion - The Priesthood opposed to the Young Ireland Party - The Irish Confederation - The United Irishman - Alarm of the Government and of the Citizens of Dublin - Preparations of the Government - The City Fortified - Apprehensions of a Red Republic - Lord Clarendon and the World Newspaper - Irish Deputation to the Provisional Government at Paris - De Lamartine's Answer - Smith O'Brien in the House of Commons - Increasing Alarm in Dublin - The Young Ireland Leaders attacked by a Limerick Mob - Arrest of Mitchell - Trial of Smith O'Brien and Meagher - Transportation of Mitchell - New- Powers granted - Commencement of the Insurrection - Parleying with the Police - The Battle of Ballingarry - Arrest of Smith O'Brien- Loyalty of the Constabulary - State Trials at Clonmel - Declarations of the Prisoners on the Passing of Sentence - Commutation of the Sentence of Death to Transportation - Trial of Mr. Gavan Duffy - New Powers granted to the Executive - Smith O'Brien takes the field - Ireland - The Rate in Aid - The Encumbered Estates Act - The Queen's Visit to Ireland - Her Majesty's Reception in Cork - Her arrival at Kingstown, and Reception there - The Royal Procession through Dublin - Visit to the Public Institutions - Levée and Drawing Room in Dublin Castle - Review in the Phoenix Park - Departure of the Queen from Kingstown - Visit to Belfast - Departure for Scotland - Arrival at Balmoral - Return to Osborne.
  • Chapter: IV. Effects of the French Revolution - Europe
    Effects of the French Revolution - Belgium - King Leopold's Speech - Dispatch of Lord Palmerston to the English Minister at Madrid- Reply of the Duke de Sotomayar - Dismissal of Sir H. Bulwer from the Spanish Court - Carlist Insurrection in Spain - The Revolutionary Movement in Germany - The Germanic Confederation - The Diet - The Federal Army - The National Assembly - John, Archduke of Austria, appointed "Vicar of the German Empire, and installed at Frankfort - The Imperial Crown declined by the King of Prussia- War against Denmark - Failure and Dissolution of the National Assembly - The Revolution at Baden, Cologne, Wiesbaden, and Düsseldorf - Permanence of Democracy - Hesse Cassel - Bavaria - Lola Montez - Riots at Munich - Abdication of the King - Monster Meeting at Heidelberg - Riots at Frankfort - Battle between the Troops and the People - Shocking Assassinations - Prussia - Frederick William IV.; his Character and Policy; Despotic Tendencies - Popular Discontent and Distrust - The United Diet - The King's Speech - The Address of the Diet in reply - Second Meeting of the Diet - The King heads the Revolutionary Movement - Joy of the People - Collision with the Troops - Royal Concessions - Liberal Cabinet - Liberation of the Polish Political Prisoners - Triumphal Procession - The King appears in German Colours - His Address to the Students of the University; he sinks the Name and Nationality of Prussia in the German Empire - The Brandenburg Administration - The Royal Speech to the Diet - Its demand of Free Institutions - It refuses to merge the Prussian Monarchy in German - The King backs out of his position as German Leader - New Electoral Law - The Constituent Assembly - The Opening of the National Assembly by the King in Person - The King's Speech - The Draft of the New Constitution - Discussion in the Assembly concerning the Outbreak of the 18th of March ("Was it a Revolution or a Transaction i ") - Popular Demonstrations - Motion in the Assembly to have a proper Guard for its Protection - Appointment of Von Wrangel to the Command of the Troops - The King takes Measures of Repression - The General's Address - Debate on the Title of the King - Appointment of the Count Brandenburg as Prime Minister - Deputation to the King - Decree of the King proroguing the Assembly - Resistance of the Assembly - Sitting in Permanence - The Chamber surrounded by Military - The Members expelled - The King's Proclamation - Martial Law proclaimed in Berlin - The Chamber meets again, and votes the levying of Taxes by the Government illegal - The Burgher Guard disarmed - The Prussian Assembly dissolved - Its Proceedings condemned by the Frankfort Assembly - Deplorable State of Berlin - State of Siege continued - The King's Address to the Army - He grants a New Constitution - The Frankfort Parliament offers the Imperial Crown to the King of Prussia, who declines the Honour - Collision between the Government and the Prussian Chamber - Dissolution of Parliament - Excitement at Berlin - Resignation of the Regent of Germany - Triumph of Monarchy in Germany.
  • Chapter: V. Austria
    Austria - Prince Metternich - Hungary - Effects of the French Revolution- Petition to the Emperor - Effects of Kossuth's Speech on the Mob - Metternich House sacked - Riots - Resignation of Metternich - Proclamation of the Emperor - Triumph of the Revolution - Educational Freedom - The Literary Class - Popular Excesses - Departure of the Emperor from Vienna - His Proclamation - Revolution at Prague - Germans and Sclaves - Pan-Sclavonic Movement - Congress at Prague - Provisional Government - The Princess Windischgrâtz shot - Bombardment of Prague - The Insurrection suppressed - The Ban of Croatia - State of Hungary - Louis Kossuth - Opening of the Assembly at Vienna - Address of the Archduke John - The Emperor's return to Vienna - Treachery of the Emperor towards Hungary in secretly supplying the Croatians with Money to carry on the War - Petition to the King, entreating his Aid to put down the Insurrection - Cold Reply of the King - Indignation of the Hungarians - Deputation to the National Assembly - The Hungarians resolve to break off all connection with Austria - Kossuth is proclaimed Dictator - Count Lamberg appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army - His Arrival at Pesth - Murder of Count Lamberg - Count Eugene Vichy tried by the Hungarians, and hanged as a Traitor - Decree of the Emperor dissolving the Diet, and appointing Jellachich Commander-in-Chief in Hungary - Kossuth issues a Counter-Proclamation, declaring the Independence of Hungary - Assassination of Count Latour - Capture of the Arsenal after a Desperate Contest - Committee of Public Safety - Demands of the Assembly - Flight of the Emperor - His Proclamation - Nocturnal Bivouac of the Insurgents - Arrival of Jellachich and his Army, and of Windischgrâtz - The Hungarian Army - Polish Auxiliaries - General Bern - Terms offered by Windischgrâtz - The Diet reject the Terms - Fighting commences - The City Bombarded - Conflagrations - Defeat of the Insurgents - Capitulation of the City - Expected Relief - Renewal of the Contest - Defeat and Route of the Hungarian Army - Gorgei's Account - Blum and Messenhausen Shot - Military Occupation of Vienna - Abdication of Ferdinand - Francis Joseph: his Liberal Manifesto - The Emperor's Appeal to the People - The New Constitution - The Hungarian War - The Forces on Both Sides - Commencement of Hostilities - Retreat of Görgei - Siege of Komorn - Retirement of the Diet and Government from Pesth - General Bern's Army - Görgei's March through the Carpathian Mountains, and Defeat of the Austrians at Iglo - Inactivity of Windischgrâtz - Kossuth’s Prodigious Exertions - The Battle of Kapolna - Retreat of the Hungarian. - Dembinski deprived of his Command - Proceedings of Bern - Battle of Isaszeg - Differences between Kossuth and Görgei - Independence of Hungary proclaimed - Russian Intervention - Manifesto of the Czar - Defeat of the Hungarians - Surrender of Görgei - Termination of the W«r - Execution of Batthyani - Fate of the Hungarian Leaders.
  • Chapter: VI. Italy
    Italy - Triumph of the Revolution at Milan - Retreat of the Austrians - » Revolution at Venice - Excitement throughout Italy - Sicily - The Revolt in Palermo - Concessions by the King of Naples - A Constitution granted to Sicily - Insurrection in Naples - Revolt and Bombardment of Messina - Reforms at Rome - The Pope compelled to declare War against Austria - Assassination of Count Rossi - Insurrection at Rome- Attack on the Quirinal - The Pope a Prisoner - His Escape in Disguise to Gaeta - His Appeal to the Catholic Powers - Garibaldi, his Career - A Republic proclaimed at Rome - Piedmont - The War against Austria- Battle of Novara - Abdication of Charles Albert - Peace with Austria - Excitement at Turin - Revolt of Genoa - Expulsion of the Sardinian Garrison - The City reduced by General Delia Marmora - Interference of Lord Hardwicke - Dissolution of the Sardinian Parliament - Proclamation by Victor Emmanuel - The Siege of Venice - Reaction in Central Italy - Rome - The Junta - The Constituent Assembly - The Roman Republic - Protests of the Pope - Intervention of the Catholic Powers: Naples, Spain, Austria, and France - Mazzini - The Roman Triumvirate - The French Expedition to Rome - Protests of the Romans against it - First Attack on the City repulsed with great loss to the French - Fruitless Negotiations - The Siege and Capture of Rome - Proceedings of the Conquerors - Restoration of the Pope - Policy of the French Government - De Tocqueville - Thiers and Louis Napoleon ob the Roman Question - French Occupation of Rome - Garibaldi's Legion - The General a Fugitive - Death and Burial of his Wife - He is offered a Command in the United States - Parliamentary Debates on the Italian Question.
  • Chapter: VII. Ameers of Scinde
    Difficulties with the Ameers of Scinde - Sir Charles Napier marches against them - Sack of Guiamighar - Victories of Sir Charles Napier - Scinde made a British Dependency.
  • Chapter: VIII.
    Another War of Aggression - Invasion of Gwalior by the Governor- General in person - Sir Hugh Gough Commander-in-Chief - Resistance of the Mahrattas - Battle of Maharajpore - Defeat of the Enemy - Heavy loss of the British - Battle of Mangore - Submission of the Mahrattas - British Occupation of Gwalior - The Government abolished and the Army disbanded - The Administration placed under the control of the British Resident - Warlike Policy of Lord Ellenborough - His Recall- Succeeded by Sir Henry Hardinge - He is instructed to maintain a Pacific policy - The Sikh War - Character of the People - Runjeet Singh - The Sikhs cross the Sutlej - The Battles of Moodkee, Ferozeshab, and Aliwal - The Battle of Sobraon - Defeat and Submission of the Sikhs - The Treaty of Peace - Military occupation of Lahore - Honours and Rewards of the Victors - Sir Henry Hardinge succeeded by Lord Dalhousie - Fresh insurrection of the Sikhs in the Punjaub - Battle of Chillianwallah - Sir Charles Napier sent out to supersede Lord Gough - The Battle of Goojerat - Surrender of Mooltan - End of the Sikh War- Annexation of the Punjaub.
  • Chapter: IX. Emancipation of the Jews
    Emancipation of the Jews - The Bill rejected by the House of Lords - Election of Baron Rothschild by the City of London - He refuses to be »worn on the "true faith of a Christian" - The Bill again introduced and again rejected by the Lords - Alderman Salomons elected Member for Greenwich - He insists on taking his seat and voting, in defiance of the authority of the Speaker, backed by the House - Removed by the Sergeant-at- Arms - He is prosecuted for sitting and voting, and incurs a penalty of £500 - The Jewish Members admitted by a Resolution of the House of Commons - Act of Parliament abolishing Jewish Disabilities - Colonial Self-government - Objections to the Government Measure - Conservative Tribute to the Liberal Party- Death of Queen Adelaide - Her Character - Her Benevolence and Humility - Directions for her Funeral - Death and Character of the Duke of Cambridge - Our Foreign Policy - Dispute with the Greek Government about the Claims of Mr. Finlay and Don Pacifico - Censure on the Government by the House of Lords - Debate upon it in the Commons - Mr. Roebuck's Counter-resolution - Lord Palmerston's Defence of his Policy - The last Speech of Sir Robert Peel - Majority in favour of the Government - The Death of Sir Robert Peel - National grief caused by this event - Tribute paid to his memory in Parliament - Public Honours declined by the Family - A Statue voted by the House of Commons - Eulogium in the French Assembly.
  • Chapter: X. Papal Aggression
    Papal Aggression - Apostolic Vicars - Bull of Pope Pius IX. - Pastoral of Cardinal Wiseman - Establishment of a Roman Catholic Hierarchy with Territorial Titles - Public Excitement caused by the Papal Aggression - The Durham Letter - The Speech from the Throne - Discussions on the Subject in the Lords and Commons - Speech of Lord John Russell - The Papal Aggression Bill - Dr. Cullen - The Synod of Thurles - The Bill passes both Houses with large Majorities - Ministerial Crisis - Failure of the Leaders of the Protectionists, or Peelites, to form an Administration - Restoration of the Russell Cabinet - The Great Exhibition of 1851 - The Prince Consort - Civic Banquets in London and York - The Royal Commission - Mr. Paxton - The Crystal Palace - Opening of the Exhibition by the Queen- Number of Visitors - Receipts - Brilliant Success of the Exhibition.
  • Chapter: XI. France
    France - Differences between the President and the Assembly - Solemn "Vows and Protestations of Louis Napoleon in favour of the Inviolability of the Constitution - Secret Preparations for the Coup d'état - Selection of Trusty Associates - The Coup d'état - Arrest of the leading Members of the Assembly, the Members of the Government, and the Generals of the Army, in the middle of the night - Their Incarceration - Conduct of Louis Napoleon during the progress of these events - Expulsion of the Assembly by the Military - Their Impeachment by the President - The Judges of the Supreme Court dragged from the Bench - Massacre of the Citizens by the Military - Proclamations by the President and his Agents in the Conspiracy - Election of the President for ten years by Universal Suffrage, the alternative being Louis Napoleon or Anarchy - Lord Palmerston expresses his approval of the Coup d'état, and is dismissed - Fall of the Russell Administration - General Election - The Derby Cabinet and its Measures - The Militia Act - Resignation of Lord Derby - The Coalition Ministry under the Earl of Aberdeen- Death of the Duke of Wellington - His Funeral.
  • Chapter: XII. Crimean War
    Origin of the Crimean War - President Prince Louis Napoleon (1850) raises the Eastern Question - State of Europe - New Element in the Balance of Power - France under the Prince-President - The Emperor Nicholas and the French President - French Agitation and Russian Ambition - The Eastern Question makes slow Progress - M. de Lavalette (1851-2) at Constantinople - His Violence - Nature of the Dispute about the Holy Places - Vacillation of the Porte - Its Evasions and Conflicting Pledges - Striking Spectacle of Jerusalem - Anger of Nicholas - Troops set in Motion - New Ministry in England - Its Trust in the Czar - Secret Overtures at St. Petersburg (1853) - The "Sick Man" - The Czar suggests a Partition of Turkey - The Word of a " Gentleman " - Lord Stratford sent to Constantinople - Russia preparing for a Grand Coup - Prince Menschikoff at Constantinople - His rude Attitude - Colonel Rose sends for the British Fleet - Admiral Dundas will not move, but French Fleet sails to Salamis - Anger of Russia - Rumours of a Russian Demand for a Secret Treaty - British Government Incredulous - Lord Stratford arrives at the Porte - Interview with the Sultan - His Tactics - Separates Question of the Holy Places from the Ulterior Demands - Settles Question of the Holy Places - Prince Menschikoff becomes more violent - Sends in an Ultimatum - Lord Stratford's Exertions - Ultimatum Rejected - The Prince quits Constantinople (May 22, 1853).
  • Chapter: XIII.
    Question at issue becomes European - Fleets ordered to Besika Bay- Russian Duplicity and Pretensions - The Czar and Lord Stratford - Nesselrode's "Last Effort" - Ultimatum sent to the Porte - -Attitude of England - Negotiation - Firm Resolves of the Czar - The Porte rejects the Ultimatum - The Russians cross the Pruth - The Czar's Manifesto - Protest of the Sultan - The Four Powers - Their Efforts - Austrian Mediation - Conference at Vienna - Growth of the Anglo- French Alliance - The Western Powers committed to the Defence of Turkey - Preparations of the Porte - The Four Powers frame the Vienna Note - The Czar, but not the Porte consulted - The Czar accepts, the Porte rejects the Note - Wrath of Nicholas - Anger of the Powers - Nesselrode's Interpretation of the Note justifies the Porte - Position of the German Powers - Nature of the Vienna Note Explained - Alarm at Constantinople - Precipitate Conduct of M. de la Cour - The Fleets ordered within the Straits - Royal Conference at Olmutz - Fresh Russian Scheme - Lord Stratford's Plan of a Settlement - The Porte declares War, but still names Peace Preliminaries - Summons from Omar Pasha to Prince Gortschakoff - Its Rejection - Rejection accepted as a Declaration of War.
  • Chapter: XIV.
    The British Government desires to prevent Hostilities - Pressure on the Porte - Suspension agreed to, but Hostilities break out in Asia, on the Danube - Action at Isaatcha - Position of England, of France, of the Czar - Another Vienna Project - Lord Stratford's Project progresses- Military Position of Russia - Omer Pasha on the Danube - Battle of Oltenitza - Seizure of Kalafat - The Turks victorious - Omer Pasha withdraws to the right bank, but keeps his ground at Kalafat - Massacre at Sinope: its Effects on Europe; why not prevented? - Lord Palmerston tenders his Resignation - Fleets ordered to enter the Euxine, and compel the Russians to keep within their Ports: was this wise? - Turkish Scheme of Peace (1854) - The Turkish Victory at Zetati - Russia will not hear of the Turkish Plan - Offers Counter Propositions, which are rejected at Vienna - Anger of Nicholas at the Entry of the Fleets - Count Orloff sent to Vienna: his Proposals - " Explanations" demanded in Paris and London - Diplomatic Relations between Russia and the Western Powers broken off - Letter of Napoleon to Nicholas - Warlike Spirit of England - The Guards embark for Malta - Western Powers summon Russia to quit the Principalities - " The Emperor does not think it becoming to answer " - Manifesto of the Czar - British Fleet sails for the Baltic - " For Faith and Christendom! God with us: who against us?"
  • Chapter: XV. Attitude of the German Powers
    Attitude of the German Powers - Alliance between Austria and Prussia- Mission of Sir John Burgoyne - Choice of Gallipoli as a Base - The Czar's Forces in the Principalities - They cross the Danube - Drive the Turks out of the Dobrudscha - Are frustrated before Kalafat, and retreat - Paskiewitch determines to besiege Silistria - Description of that place - The Russians partially Invest it - English Defenders of Silistria - The Arab Tabia - Attempts to Storm Defeated - The Russians advance their Parallels - Employ Mines - Omer Pasha reinforces the Garrison - Paskiewitch, Gortschakoff, Schilder Wounded - Siege Raised - Causes of Failure - Treaty between Austria and the Porte - The Fleet in the Black Sea - Odessa Bombarded - Russian Reverses in Circassia - Assembly of the Allies at Gallipoli: at Scutari - Weak Constitution of the Armies - Lord Raglan arid Marshal St. Arnaud visit Shumla - -Plan agreed upon - Vagaries of St. Arnaud - Plan upset - Concentration at Varna deferred: at length effected - State of the Camps - Lord Cardigan's Reconnaissance - Omer Pasha's Visit to Varna - Battle of Guirgevo - Evacuation of the Principalities by Russia - Austria agrees to certain Essential Bases of a Peace-She Occupies the Principalities - Value of this Act - The British Government turns its eyes on the Crimea - Sebastopol - The Duke of Newcastle's Despatch - Council of War - Expedition resolved on - Cholera in the Camp - Fatal Expedition to the Dobrudscha - Fire in Varna.
  • Chapter: XVI.
    Publicity of the Invasion - How the Czar regarded it - Spirit of England - Difficulties and Delays - Depressed Condition of the Troops - Attitude of the Generals - Immense Naval Arrangements - The Embarkation - The French Marshal sails alone - Start of the British - The Flotilla at Sea - Doubts of the French - Firmness of Lord Raglan- Naval Reconnaissance to the Crimea - Point of Debarkation selected- Convoy at the Rendezvous - Wonderful Spectacle it presented - Sails for the Landing Place - Capture of Eupatoria - Arrival at Old Fort and Kamishli - The Mystery of the "Buoy" - The French first Ashore - The Landing - Adventure of Sir George Brown - Taking up Position- Change of Weather - Cholera - Difficulties of getting Land Transport - Preparations for the March - Composition of the Armies - The March - Order of March - Arrival on the Bulganâk - The First Skirmish - The Bivouac on the 19th.
  • Chapter: XVII.
    The Allies on the Bulganâk - Conference between Marshal St. Arnaud and Lord Raglan - Delays on the 20th - The Armies march - Their Order - The Russian Army - Prince Menschikoff's Tactics - The Position of the Alma - Its Strength and Weakness - The Troops to hold it - How Placed - Advance of the Allies - The Fleet opens fire - Bosquet ascends the Cliff - The Allies prepare to Attack - The Advance of Canrobert and Prince Napoleon - The English under Fire - Their Order - Bosquet and Canrobert reinforced by Forey - Russian Counter Movements - They bring up a huge Column, and Confront the French - Lord Raglan strides into the Fight - Advance of the Light and 2nd Divisions - Severe Russian Fire - Passage of the River - The Fight for the Great Battery - Its Capture - Lord Raglan's Ride - He appears on Russian Ground - Orders Two Guns to be brought up - Aspect of the Battle - The Guards - Backwardness of their Chief - They cross the River - Lord Kaplan s Two Guns - Effect of their Fire - Evans's ready Skill - Advance of the Guards - Light Division driven from the Captured Battery - Colin Campbell's Words - The Guards Re-take the Battery - Tue French Storm the Telegraph Hill - Retreat of the Russian Army - No Pursuit - Why - Loss of the Troops on both Sides - Reflections on the Battle - On the Conduct of Lord Raglan.
  • Chapter: XVIII.
    After the Battle - Two Days on the Alma - Views of Lord Raglan - The Russians sink their Ships - March of the Allies to the Katcha - To the Belbek - Russian Plans - Allied Councils of War - Change of their Plans - The Flank March - Reasons for it - Its Character - " This is Strategy " - The Country round Sebastopol - The March - Surprise of the Russian Rear-Guard - Bivouac on the Tchernaya - Capture of Balaclava - Illness and Death of St. Arnaud - Canrobert succeeds to the Command - March of the French - The Field of Operations - Occupation of the Plateau - Its Character - Energy of the Enemy - Proper Point of Attack Neglected - Why - Russian Forwardness - Assault Impossible - Landing of the Siege Train - The Allies entrench their Rear - Ground broken before the Place - Sortie - English Batteries- French Batteries - Russian Counter Preparations - Todleben - Korniloff - The Enemy Reinforced - His Boldness - The Sea Defences of Sebastopol - Preparations for the Bombardment completed on the 16th.
  • Chapter: XIX.
    The Hour of Trial - Opening of the Bombardment, 17th October - Its Character - Incidents - Failure of the French - Their Fire silenced - Effect of English Fire - Explosion in the Redan - The Attack by the Fleets - Its Perils - Mr. Ball - The Fleets fail - Losses - Results of Fire - Progress of the Bombardment on the 18th - French still Silent - Changing Character of the Expedition - Fire on the 19th - French reopen - Push Parallels - Character of Operations - Russian Reinforcements - Menschikoff's Designs on Balaclava - That Position - Alerts - Liprandi on the Tchernaya - Battle of the 25th - Advance of the Russians - Capture of the Redoubts - Lord Raglan - Charge of the Heavy Brigade - Russian Horse repelled by the 93rd - Arrival of 1st and 4th Divisions of the French - Lord Raglan and Lord Lucan - The Light Brigade - Lord Raglan's Instructions - Nolan - Charge of the Light Brigade - Lord Cardigan - Battle ends - Losses.
  • Chapter: XX.
    Effects of the Combat at Balaclava - Its Lessons - The Position contracted - Plans of the Allies - Frustrated by the Enemy - The Position of Inkermann - Neglected Perforce - Weak Defences - Action of the 26th of October - Defeat of the Enemy - Mr. Hewett's 68-pounder - Menschikoff Reinforced: his Strength - The Strength of the Allies- Russian Plans - Battle of Inkermann - English surprised: they run to Arms - Heavy Russian Attacks repelled - Power of the Russian Batteries - False Attacks from Balaclava Valley and the Town - Two British Divisions check the Enemy - The Sandbag Battery - Advance of the Guards - Lord Raglan arrives - The Enemy brings up Fresh Columns - Dannenberg - The Grand Dukes - The 18-pounders - New Infantry Fights - The Coldstreams in the Sandbag Battery - Bloody Combat - Enemy successful - The Guards retake the Battery: but are again expelled - Death of Cathcart - The State of Affairs - Arrival of the French - New and sharp Engagements - The Russians frustrated: they retreat fighting - Canrobert declines to pursue - Losses on both sides - Council of War - Lord Raglan's firmness: its value to England.
  • Chapter: XXI.
    Naval Operations (1854) - Their Character in the Baltic - Unreasonable Expectations - Real Objects and Possibilities - Squadron enters the Baltic - War Declared - Admiral Napier's Order - Sails for the Gulf of Finland - Blockade Established - Plumridge in the Gulf of Bothnia - Hall and Yelverton - Key - Admiral Napier looks at Sweaborg - Arrival of the French Fleet - Cronstadt Reconnoitred - The Russians refuse the Offer of Battle - Bomarsund - It is resolved to take it - Arrival of French Troops - Land Operations - Captive and Destruction of the Bomarsund Forts - End of the Campaign - Naval Operations in the White Sea and off Kamschatka.
  • Chapter: XXII.
    Changed Position of the Allies - Tempest of the 14th of November - Great Loss of Ships and Stores - The Climax of our Misfortunes - Beginning of Winter Agonies - Lord Raglan's Heroic Firmness - It is misunderstood at Home - Why - Retrospective - The Ministry - Its Sins of Omission - Position of the Duke of Newcastle - Lord Aberdeen - Mr. Gladstone - Great Public Outcry - Popular Feeling inflamed by False Statements - Meeting of Parliament in December - Short Session - Recess - Meeting of Parliament in January (1855) - Mr. Roebuck's Motion for Inquiry - Lord John Russell resigns - His Conduct - Defeat of Ministers - Lord Aberdeen resigns - Lord Palmerston forms a Cabinet - Mr. Roebuck persists - And the Peelites quit the Cabinet- Lord Palmerston forms a Second - War Policy unchanged.
  • Chapter: XXIII. State of the Array (1854-5)
    State of the Array (1854-5) - Food - Clothing - Shelter - Fuel - Great Defects. - No Road, and why - Insufficient Transport, and why - Failure of Commissariat - Statistics of Sickness - Painful State of the Hospitals - Failure of Medical Department - How the people were enraged - Gross Exaggerations - The Sebastopol Inquiry - Its Character - Sufferings of the French.
  • Chapter: XXIV.
    Military Operations in the Winter - Inkerraann Fortified - Period of Sorties - Tryon captures Rifle Pits - His Death recorded in a French General Order - French Plans - They persist in neglecting the Malakoff - Arrival of Osten-Sacken - Sharp Sorties in December - The Russians retire behind the Tchernaya - Their Position - Reconnaissance of December 20 and of December 30 - Sorties in January (1855) - Operations in February - The Duke of Montebello and General Niel - The French at length see that the Malakoff is the Key of the Place - They assume that Attack - Russians defeated at Eupatoria - Sir Colin Campbell on the Tchernaya - Strange Conduct of General Bosquet - Campbell and Vinoy - Night Conflict of February 23 - Daring of the Zouaves - Defeat of the French - Russian Energy - They sink more Ships - Death of the Emperor Nicholas.
  • Chapter: XXV.
    Progress of the Works - Russian Steamers driven off - Russian Counter Approaches - They seize the Careening Ridge and Mamelon - French Lines at Kamiesch - Sortie of the 23rd of March - Repulse of the Enemy - Heavy Losses - Burial Truce - Description of the Aspect of the Works on both Sides - The Emperor going to the Crimea - Effects of his Interference - Second Bombardment - Immense Armaments- Opening of Fire on April 9th - Its Effects - Russian Fire unsubdued - ^ Why the Place was not taken - Incidents during the Bombardment - French Combats - English Progress - Death of Colonel Egerton - The Little Drummer - Omer Pasha's Movement on the Tchernaya - He returns to Eupatoria - French Fights on the 1st of May - Sorties - Continued Interference of the Emperor - General Canrobert in a False Position - Expedition sails for Kertch - Recalled Immediately - Why? - Conduct of the War from Paris - Lord Raglan for an Assault- Arrival of the Sardinians - Imperial Strategics - Grand Paper Plan rejected by Lord Raglan - Resignation of Canrobert - Général Pélissier, the New Commander.
  • Chapter: XXVI.
    Negotiations for Peace - Position of Austria - Treaty of December 2nd, 1854 - Austria's Engagements - Bases of Negotiation accepted by Russia - Lord John Russell starts for Vienna (February 20th, 1855) - Conference opens March 15th - Two Points agreed to - The Third Point - Difficulty of approaching it - Russia declines the Initiative - Proposals of the Allies - Internal Discord - Austria backing out of the Treaty of December 2nd - Russia refuses the Allied Proposals - Tactics of Russia - Lord John goes home - M. Drouyn de Lhuys returns to Paris, and resigns - Last Proposal of Austria - Conference formally closed - Austria backs out - Position of Lord John Russell on his return - Called to account in Parliament, he resigns before a Motion of Censure - Discussions on the War in Parliament - Character of the Opposition - Mr. Disraeli Defeated - Vote on the Turkish Loan - Vote on Mr. Roebuck's Sebastopol Inquiry - Motion of Censure - Views of Mr. Gladstone and Lord John Russell on the War - Finance of the War.
  • Chapter: XXVII.
    General Pélissier's Vigorous Command - Agrees to the Kertch Expedition - Bloody Combats on the 22nd and 23rd of May - The French carry and hold the Cemetery on their left - Heavy Losses - The French and Sardinians take up the Line of the Tchernaya - The Expedition to Kertch - Its Objects - Its Speed and Success - Yenikale Occupied - The Flying Squadron in the Sea of Azoff - Exploits of the Gunboats-Destruction of Vast Depots of Supplies - At Berdiansk, at Genitchi, at Taganrog, at Marioupol - Heavy Blow to the Enemy - Anapa blown up and abandoned - Progress of the Siege - Pélissier in Council - Resolve to assault the Mamelon and other Outworks - Bombardment of the 6th and 7th of June - Assault Ordered - The Emperor's Obstructive Telegram - Moral Courage of Pélissier - Capture of the Mamelon, White Works, and Quarries - Dreadful Loss of Life.
  • Chapter: XXVIII.
    Lord Raglan proposes Active Operations - French Views prevail - New Batteries - The Allies on the Tchernaya - Activity of Todleben - His great Skill - Allies in Council - Their Plans - Fourth Bombardment - Pélissier suddenly changes the Plan - Prepares to Assault - Lord Raglan in the Trenches - Vigilance of the Garrison - Fatal Mistake of General Mayran - Anger of Pélissier - Signal given - Advance of Brunet and D'Autemarre - Brunet killed - D'Autemarre's Troops enter the Place - English Attack on the Redan - Bloody Repulse - Deaths of Campbell and Yea - D'Autemarre's Troops, unsustained, are driven out - Their Gallant Conduct - Failure of the Allies - Lord Raglan and Pélissier - General Eyre's Column - Its brilliant Exploits in the South Ravine - Great Losses - Gortschakoff's exultation - The Flag of Truce - Reflections on the Conduct of the Allies - Illness and Death of Lord Raglan - Embarkation of his Body - Orders of the Day - Character and Services of Lord Raglan.
  • Chapter: XXIX.
    General Simpson takes command of the British - Deaths and Departures - » The French push towards the Malakoff - Hazardous Nature of this, great labour - English in the Quarries - Operations of the Covering Army on the Tchernaya - Watched by the Russians - Description of the Country between Inkermann and Baidar - Prince Gortschakoff, reinforced, resolves to attack the Covering Army - The Position he had to assail - How defended - Rumours of Russian Intentions - Prince Gortschakoff's Army - His Plan - Marches on the 15th and attacks on the 16th of August - The Allies partially surprised - Rapid gathering of Troops - Failure of the Prince's Plan at the Outset - The gallant bearing of the Italians - Russian Right crosses the River - Is driven back - Gortschakoff sends Reinforcements - They assail first the Right, then the Centre, and are routed with terrible Slaughter - Arrival of large French Reinforcements - Close of the Battle - Prince Gortschakoff rallies under the Mackenzie Heights - Forms a new Line - Retires, covered by Horsemen and Cannon - General La Marmora over the Tchernaya - Russians fire on the French Ambulance Corps - Losses on both sides - Reflections.
  • Chapter: XXX.
    Progress of the Siege - Its Character - Russian fire retards and then stops the French - English bombard the place to cover the French Working Parties - Explode a Russian Magazine - The French on the left open fire - Splendid Sunset Scene - Movements and Precautions on the Tchernaya - Immense Expenditure of Ammunition - Combats before the Malakoff - The French Victorious - Explosion of 15,000 pounds of Powder in the Mamelon - The crisis, at hand.
  • Chapter: XXXI.
    Prince Gortschakoff secures his Retreat - The Allies resolve to Assault- Council of September 3rd - Condition and Plans of Attack - Day and hour fixed - Sixth and last Bombardment, September 5th - Its crushing character - Kept up at Night - A Russian Frigate on fire - Enormous losses of the Enemy - A Russian Two-decker burned - Morning of the 8th - General Bosquet to his Officers - The Troops enter the Trenches - Large Number employed by the French - British Numbers and Plans - Russian Forces in Sebastopol - Character of the Defences - Surprise of the-Malakoff - How the Russians were expelled - Prompt arrival of Supports - The Redoubt secured - Attack on the Little Redan - The French repeatedly foiled, with awful loss - Prince Gortschakoff - Heroism of MacMahon - Renewed Attacks on the Little Redan - French Horse Artillery - Fresh Repulses - British Attack on the Great Redan - Ardour of the Assailants - They enter the Work - Are overwhelmed by Numbers, and driven out - French Assaults on the Town Front - Their Failure - Result of the Day's Battle - Russian resolves - Prince Gortschakoff retreats at Night - His able tactics - Sebastopol in flames - Tremendous Explosions - Sebastopol won - A Russian Hospital - The Siege at an end - Losses - Reflections - Spoil - Prince Gortschakoff on the catastrophe.
  • Chapter: XXXII.
    After the Siege - Position of the Armies; their Strength - Expedition to Eupatoria - General d'Allonville's Operations; defeats the Russians at Khanghill - Destruction of Taman and Fanagoria - Expedition to Kinburn - The Fleet off Odessa - Inscription of Kinburn; it is attacked and captured - Oczakov blown up - Steamers ascend the Boug - Fresh Movements at Eupatoria - Failure from want of Water and Will - Inactivity of the Allies - Resignation of General Simpson - Genera?. Sir W. Codrington succeeds him - Great Explosion in the French Lines.
  • Chapter: XXXIII.
    Naval Operations - The Baltic Fleet - Off Cronstadt - Great Strength of the Allies - The " Hango Massacre " - Its Abominable Character - The Russian Minister Defends it - Shameful Nature of the Defence - Coast Operations - Storey at Nystad - Yelverton at Lovisa - Off Wiborg - At Fredericksham - At Kotka - Sweaborg: its Strength and Importance - It is Bombarded - Vast Conflagration for Three Days - Destructive Explosion - Small Loss of the Allies - Heavy Loss of the Enemy - Operations in the White Sea - In the Pacific - Escapes of the Russian Squadron - Petropaulovski Blown up - The British off the Amur - Insignificant Character of their proceedings.
  • Chapter: XXXIV.
    Russian Conquests in Asia; their Extent and Importance - Views of Lord Aberdeen in 1829 - The Frontier Line in Armenia - Gumri and Bayazid - Anxiety of the British Cabinet in 1854 - Corruption of the Pashas - Outbreak of War in 1853 - Defeats of the Turks - Vely Pasha at Kars - Ruins the Army - Arrival of Generals Guyon and Kmety - Turkish Forces in 1854 - Appointment of Zarif Pasha - Selim Pasha defeated at Urzughetti - Prince Bebutoff takes the offensive - Another Selim Pasha defeated at Bayazid - Battle of Kuruk-Dereh - Defeat of Zarif Pasha - Flight to Kars - Colonel Fenwick Williams ordered to Asia - His Discoveries of Peculation - He fortifies Erzeroum - Colonel Lake arrives at Kars and entrenches it (1855) - Description of Kars - Appointment of Vassif Pasha - Opening of the Campaign of 1855 - Williams Pasha goes to Kars - General Mouravief invades Armenia; attempts to surprise Kars, and fails - Blockades the Camp - Progress of the Works - Mouravief scours the Country - Russian March towards Erzeroum - General Brunner defeated before Kars - Schemes for relieving the place - Discord in the Cabinets of the Allies - Trials of the Garrison - Turks routed at Pennek - Mouravief resolves to storm Kars - Battle of the 29th of September - Awful Losses of the Russians - Splendid Defence of the Garrison - Omer Pasha's Diversion a Failure - Cowardice of a third Selim Pasha - The Kars Garrison abandoned to itself - Its Sufferings - Capitulation, November 27th - End of the Campaign.
  • Chapter: XXXV.
    Winter of 1855-6 - Positions of the Armies - The Czar in the Crimea- State of the British Army - Condition of the French Army; its great Losses from Disease - Causes thereof - Action at Baga - Demolition of the Forts, Docks, and Barracks of Sebastopol - Armistice.
  • Chapter: XXXVI.
    Signs of Peace - Views of Russia and France - of England - Speech of the French Emperor - Its effect on Germany - Austria proposes Terms at St. Petersburg - Their nature - Russian Manœuvre - Austria imperative - Makes her Terms an Ultimatum - Attitude of Germany - Russia gives way - Congress to be held at Paris - Position of Sardinia - Peace Plenipotentiaries - Opening of British Parliament (1856) - Speech from the Throne - Feeling of Parliament - Ministerial Explanations - German Diet accepts Basis of Peace - Meeting of the Congress - Armistice - Opening of French Chambers - Remarkable Imperial Speech - The Hatti-Scherif or Rayah Magna Charta - Progress of the Congress- Prussia admitted to participate - Treaty concluded - The Eagle's Plume - Stipulations of the Treaty, and Conventions - Treaty of Guarantee - Striking Discussions in Congress - Declaration of Maritime Rights - The Mediation Clause - End of the Congress - Debate on Kars in British Parliament - Proclamation of Peace - Debates on the Treaty - Evacuation of the Crimea - Russia again imperils the General Peace - Settlement of the Frontier Question.
  • Chapter: XXXVII.
    State of the Country at the beginning of the Russian War - Conclusion of the Kaffir War - The Burmese War - Deficient Harvest of 1853 - The Wages Movement - The Preston Strike - Its Disastrous Effects- Opening of the Crystal Palace by the Queen - Description of the Building - The Emperor of the French: his Marriage - Visit of the Prince Consort to the Emperor at Boulogne - Visit of the Emperor and Empress of the French to London - Their reception at Windsor - The Emperor invested with the Order of the Garter - Visit to the Crystal Palace - The Queen's visit to Paris - Historical relations between the two Courts - Festivities at Paris - Visit to Versailles - Ball at the Hôtel de Ville - Fête at the Palace of Versailles - Departure of the Queen - The Italian Question - Speech of Lord Lyndhurst - Austrian Tyranny - The Neapolitan Government - Necessity of English Intervention - Sardinia - Conduct of the King of Naples - Speech of Lord John Russell on the state of Italy - Austrian Occupation - Lord John's interview with the First Napoleon - Speech of Lord Palmerston - Speech of Mr. Disraeli - Secret Societies and Foreign Occupation: their Reaction upon one Another - England and France recall their Ambassadors from Naples.
  • Chapter: XXXVIII.
    Another Chinese War - Sir John Bowring - The Affair of the Lorcha - Attack upon Canton - Debate on China in the House of Lords- Speeches of Lord Derby, Lord Clarendon, Lord Grey, Lord Granville, and the Bishop of Oxford - Majority of Thirty-six in favour of the Government - Debate of Four Days, in the House of Commons, on Mr. Cobden's Motion for a Vote of Censure on the Government - Statement of the Case against it - Defence of the Policy pursued at Canton - Defeat of the Government - Discussion on the Dissolution of Parliament - Resignation of the Speaker, Mr. Shaw Lefevre - Proposal of a Vote of Thanks by Lord Palmerston - Pension of £4,000 settled on Mr. Lefevre - Dissolution of Parliament - General Election - Mr, John Evelyn Denison elected Speaker - Proposed Marriage of the Princess Royal with Prince Frederick William of Prussia - Dowry of the Princess - Revenues of the Crown - The Queen incurs no Debt - Abolition of Ministers' Money in Ireland - Establishment of a new Probate Court and a new Divorce Court - The English Law of Marriage - Resistance to Reform on the part of the Church - Protracted Debates - The Rights of the Clergy - The Orsini Attempt to Assassinate the Emperor of the French - Despatch of Count Walewski, charging England with harbouring Assassins: it receives no Official Answer - French Military Threats against England - The Emperor's Dictation to the English Government - Great Excitement and Irritation in this Country - The Conspiracy Bill - Lord Palmerston's Speech - Speech of Mr. Kinglake - Mr. Roebuck's Denunciation of the Conduct of the French Emperor - Lord John Russell opposed the Bill, which was defended by Sir George Grey and Mr. Disraeli - Public Excitement against the Measure - Debate on the Second Reading - Mr. Milner Gibson moved its rejection - Remarkable Speeches of Sir Robert Peel and Mr. Gladstone - Mr. Disraeli - The Bill rejected - Resignation of the Government - Lord Derby charged with the Formation of a New Ministry - The New Cabinet.
  • Chapter: XXXIX.
    The Sepoy Mutiny: its Causes - Character of the Bengal Army: its Composition vices of its Discipline - Effects of Caste - Effects of Recruiting from a Limited Area - Effects of Seniority Promotion - Sepoys begin to feel themselves Masters - Weakness of European Garrison - The Occasion of Mutiny arises - The Greased Cartridge - Sepoy Excitement - Mysterious Distribution of Cakes - Mutiny at Berhampore - Fires in the Stations - Barrackpore - Mangul Pandy and Adjutant Baugh - The 19th Native Infantry Disbanded - General Anson at Umballa: his Doings: he goes to the Hills - Mutiny at Lucknow - 34th Native Infantry Disbanded - Meerut - Mutiny of the 3rd Cavalry - Mutiny of all the Troops - Massacre of Europeans - Imbecility of General Hewitt – "On to Delhi " - Delhi: its Situation - Arrival of the Meerut Mutineers- Massacres in Delhi - Narrow Escapes - Willoughby in the Magazine- Blows it up - Flight of Europeans - The King's Sons massacre the Women and Children.
  • Chapter: XL.
    The Punjab saved by the Electric Telegraph - Course of the Message from Delhi - Lahore: Energetic Measures of Mr. Montgomery and Brigadier Corbett - Native Troops disarmed on the 13th - Philour secured - Jullundhur made Safe - The Sikh Rajahs support the British - Ferozepore - Part of the Native Troops Mutiny - Kangra, Umritsir, Mooltan secured - Peshawur: Measures of Edwardes, Nicholson, Cotton, and Sir J. Lawrence - The Movable Column - General Anson at Simla - What is Simla - Orders down the Europeans - General and European Troops at Umballa - Mutiny of Ghoorkas - The Siege Train: its Escapes - Help from the Sikh Rajahs - The British move off for Delhi - Lieutenant Hodson - His Ride to Meerut and Back - Anson Dies at Kurnaul - The Punjab Men at Work - " Clubs are Trumps, not Spades!" - Peshawur. Four Regiments Disarmed - Its Effect on the Mountain Tribes - Mutiny and Destruction of the 55th Native Infantry - Nicholson's Charge - A Fifth Regiment Disarmed - Captain Mundy's Adventure - New Native Levies - Punjabees Sound - Spread of Mutiny - Blazing all over the North-West - Breaks out at Roorkee - In the Doab; at Nusseerabad; at Hansi and Hissar; at Lucknow; Bareilly; Shahjehanpore; at Seetapore; Benares; Allahabad; Cawnpore; Jhansi; Neemuch; Azimghur - Mutiny Overruns Oude - Horrible Atrocities of the Mutineers - Adventures, Sufferings, and Escapes of the British.
  • Chapter: XLI. March of the British on Delhi
    March of the British on Delhi - Wilson's Meerut Brigade in the Field- Battles on the Hindun - Defeat of the Mutineers - Wilson joins General Barnard - Hodson again - Battle of Badlee Serai - Rout of the Sepoys - Arrival of the Guides: their Wonderful March - The British before Delhi - Danger in the Punjab - Revolt at Jhullundhur - Weakness of the Military Authorities - Sepoys escape - Mr. Ricketts at work on the Sutlej - Splendid little Action - Native Troops at Mooltan disarmed - Position before Delhi - The Sepoys assume the Offensive - Daily Actions - Plan to storm the City abandoned - The Sepoys reinforced - They attack the Rear - Combat of the 19th of June - Rebel Defeat - More Sepoy arrivals in Delhi - Fresh Actions - The British reinforced - State of the Siege at the end of June.
  • Chapter: XLII. Calcutta
    Calcutta - Position of Lord Canning - Havelock at Bombay - Lord Canning sends for Reinforcements to the Mauritius, Ceylon, and the Cape: also to Madras - Colonel Neill and his Fusiliers - Neill at Benares - Mutiny at Allahabad - European Officers and Sikhs hold the Fortress - Neill Arrives, and Conquers - Mutiny at Cawnpore - The British Entrench themselves - Nana Sahib appears on the Scene - His Perfidy - Azimoolah - The Sepoys start for Delhi - Nana Sahib brings them back - Siege of Cawnpore - Endurance of the Garrison - Their Sufferings - Their Valour - Ferocity of Nana Sahib - Hideous Massacres - Incidents of the Siege - Capitulation - Massacre on the River banks - Escape and Fate of the Thirteen - Four only Survive - Immense Extent of the Mutiny - General View - Lucknow - Measures of Sir Henry Lawrence - Battle of Chinhut - Defeat of the British - They are besieged in Lucknow Residency - Death of Sir Henry Lawrence.
  • Chapter: XLIII.
    Havelock ordered to recover Cawnpore and relieve Lucknow - His March from Allahabad - Battle of Futtehpore, July 12th - Battles of Aong and Pandoo Nuddy, July 14th - Battle of Cawnpore, July 16th - Brilliant Tactics - The Enemy utterly routed - Nana Sahib massacres all the Women and Children, his Prisoners, and flies into Oude - Havelock enters Cawnpore - The House of Massacre - The Well - Bithoor captured - Havelock crosses the Ganges on the 25th of July - Battles of Onao and Busserutgunge, July 29th - Retreat to Mungulwar: reasons thereof - Defeats the Rebels again at Busserutgunge, August 5th - Retreats again to Mungulwar - Third Advance to and third Victory at Busserutgunge, August 12th - Retreat to and passage of the Ganges: reasons thereof - Battle of Bithoor, August 16th - Havelock's ninth Action - Close of his Campaign - Outram appointed to command - Cause of Havelock's failure lies at Calcutta - Weakness of Government - Mutiny at Dinapore delays Reinforcements - The Revolted Sepoys besiege Arrah - Defeat of a Relieving Force from Dinapore - Splendid Defence of Mr, Boyle's House - Vincent Eyre relieves Arrah - His March and Battle - Effects of the Dinapore Mutiny.
  • Chapter: XLIV.
    Delhi and the Punjab in July - New Proposal to assault Delhi abandoned - On the Defensive - Interior of Delhi - The Mutineers try to surprise a Convoy, and fail - Death of General Barnard - Bridges blown up - The Rohilcund Mutineers - Traitors in our Camp - Action of the 9th July - Gallant Conduct of Hills and Tombs - Action of the 14th - Chamberlain wounded - Hodson's Single Combat - The Jhansi Mutineers arrive - Showers and Seaton at Ludlow Castle - Wilson improves the state of the Camp - Sir John Lawrence - Proceedings of the Moveable Column - Nicholson disarms the 33rd and 35th Native Infantry - Lawrence disarms the 58th Native Infantry - Mutiny and Fight at Jhelum - Mutiny and Massacre at Sealkote - Nicholson at Umritsir; Disarms the 59th Native Infantry - Forced March on Gordaspore - Defeats and destroys the Sealkote Men at Trimmoo Ghat - Fresh Perils - Mutiny of the Disarmed 26th Native Infantry at Lahore - Mr. Cooper destroys them at Ujnalla - Mutiny of the 10th Cavalry at Ferozepore - Tragedy at Peshawur - Destruction of the 51st Native Infantry - These Operations set free the Moveable Column, which, with Siege Train, marches for Delhi - Progress of the Siege - Four Rebel Guns captured - The Moveable Column arrives - Hodson in the Saddle - Nicholson's Victory at Nujuffghur - End of August.
  • Chapter: XLV.
    Crisis in the Siege of Delhi - Defect of the Fortifications - Surveying under Fire - Sites for Batteries selected - Trenches opened - Exciting Night Scenes - Bombardment began - Ludlow Castle, Siege Batteries there - Effect of Fire - The Engineers - Inspecting the Breaches - Medley's Adventure - Breaches found to be practicable - Assault ordered - Plan of Attack - The Stormers - Nicholson at the Cashmere Bastion - Blowing in of the Cashmere Gate - Splendid Exploit - Hawthorn's Bugle- Rush of the 52nd Foot - The whole Line carried by Assault - Brigadier Campbell's daring March to the Great Street - Nicholson's Movement on the Moree - Nicholson mortally wounded: but the Army is firmly established in Delhi - Reid's Attack on Kishengunge fails - The Cavalry under Fire - Hodson of Hodson's Horse - Wilson's hesitation happily overruled - Capture of the Magazine, and of the Palace - Hodson captures the King, and slays his Sons - The Sikhs - Death of John Nicholson - Complete Occupation of Delhi - Who did it - Greathed's March down the Doab - Agra in Danger - Battle of Agra, and Route of the Mutineers - Part of the Army of the Punjab in Cawnpore.
  • Chapter: XLVI.
    Lucknow - Situation of the Garrison after Chinhut - Position of the Residency described - The Garrison beleaguered - Immense Numbers of the Besiegers: they begin to mine, and the besieged to countermine - Assault of July 20th: its Failure - More mining - Fart of the Defences blown down - Assault of the 10th of August - Fierce Onslaught repelled - Another Mine is sprung - Defeat of the Foe - Sufferings and Endurance of the Garrison: described by Brigadier Inglis - Hopes of Belief - Sir Colin Campbell arrives in India - Have- lock asks for Aid - Outram is appointed to command - His Schemes - Position of Havelock - Reinforcements on the way: delayed - Out- ram's magnificent Self-denial - He resolves to serve under Havelock - Marches up the Doab - Vincent Eyre's Exploit - Junction of Outram and Havelock - Passage of the Ganges - Combat of Mungulwar - Battle of Alumbagh - Attack on Lucknow - Capture of the Charbagh Bridge - The Highlanders - Sound of Firing heard in Lucknow - Havelock advances - The Garrison sees his Soldiers - Havelock captures the Chutter Munzil, and storms through the Streets into the Residency - Death of Neill - Lucknow relieved - Joy of the Garrison - Misfortunes of the Wounded - Outram in command - Shut up in Lucknow - Sir Colin Campbell collects an Army - Leaves Windham at Cawnpore, and marches on Lucknow - Capture of the Delkoosha; of the Secunder Bagh - Awful Slaughter of Sepoys - Peel and his Sailors - Outram breaks out, and Sir Colin breaks in - Evacuation of Lucknow - March towards Cawnpore - Death of Havelock.
  • Chapter: XLVII.
    Windham at Cawnpore: his position - The Gwalior Contingent advances from Calpee - Windham's hesitation: he resolves to attack: delays: defeats part of the enemy, and is surprised in his Camp - First Battle of Cawnpore - Defeat of Windham - He retires into the Fort to cover the Bridge - Sir Colin hears the Cannon; his opportune Arrival; ho saves Windham - Passage of the Oude Convoy - Second Battle of Cawnpore - Utter Rout of the Gwalior Contingent - Seaton's Campaign in the Doab - Combats of Gungaree and Puttiala - Hodson's daring Hide and narrow Escape - Sir Colin advances on Futtehghur, and takes it - He is joined by Seaton and a vast Convoy.
  • Chapter: XLVIII.
    Condition of Central India - Lord Elphinstone - Mutiny at Aurungabad - General Woodburn's weakness - Brigadier Stuart relieves Mhow; marches into Malwa; takes Dhar; defeats the Mahidpore Contingent - Combats near Mundasore - Relief of Neemuch - Return to Indore - Sir Hugh Rose arrives at Indore.
  • Chapter: XLIX.
    Sir Colin Campbell and Lord Canning - Oude or Rohilcund? - Lord Canning insists on the Capture of Lucknow - Combat at Shumshabad - The Army moves from Futtehghur to Cawnpore - Prepares to invade Oude - Waiting for Jung Bahadoor - Franks on the Goomtee - His Victories - Sir Colin crosses into Oude - Defences of Lucknow - How Sir Colin dealt with them - Seizes the Delkoosha - Franks arrives - Outram crosses the Goomtee, and takes the Rebel lines in reverse - Capture of the Martinière and of the Rebel first line - Arrival of Jung Bahadoor - Outram's Successes - Capture of the Begum Kothie - Death of Hodson - Capture of the Kaiserbagh - Sack of the Palaces - The Enemy driven out of Lucknow - Lord Canning's Proclamation - Campaign Continued - Walpole's March - Sir Colin moves on Rohilcund by Cawnpore and Futtehghur - Marches on Bareilly - Battle of the 5th of May - The Moulvie Attacks Shahjehanpore - Jones sent to relieve it - Sir Colin returns to Futtehghur - End of the Campaign.
  • Chapter: L. The Central Indian Campaign
    The Central Indian Campaign - Its Objects - Means employed - Lines of Operation - Rose marches upon Saugor - Siege and Capture of Ratghur - Relief of Saugor - Capture of Gurrakota - Preparations for a March on Jhansi - Battle of Mudanpore - Sir Hugh forces the Pass, and crosses the Betwa - Stuart captures Chandaree - Joins Sir Hugh, and both march on Jhansi - Siege and Battle of Jhansi - Tantia Topee - Jhansi taken by Storm - Sufferings from Heat - Battle of Koonch - March upon Calpee - Battle of Gowlowlee - Capture of Calpee - Tantia Topee marches on Gwalior - Dethrones Scindia - Rose follows - Brigadier Smith moves up from Goona - A Brigade starts from Agra- Action before Gwalior - Defeat of the Rebels - Scindia restored - Rose goes to Bombay - Other Operations in Central India.
  • Chapter: LI. Proceedings in the Punjab
    Proceedings in the Punjab - The Trial of the King of Delhi; his Guilt proved; his Sentence - Execution of the Rajah of Bullubghur and Nawab of Jhujjur - The Naval Brigade in Gorruckpore - Hope Grant's Summer Campaign in Oude - Defeats the Begum at Nawabgunge - Succours Maun Singh - Horsford at Sultanpore - The last Rebels in Oude.
  • Chapter: LII.
    England does her Duty - The East India Company's Dominion ceases - Proclamation of the Queen - Lord Clyde's Campaign in Oude - Takes Amethie, Shunkerpore, and Dhondiakera - Drives the Rebels over the Gogra - Crosses that River - Defeats the Begum - Night March on Mejidiah - Surprise of the Enemy - The Hussars on the Raptee - Flight of Nana Sahib - The Enemy driven into the Terai - Close of the Campaign - Central India: Remarkable Career of Tantia Topee - His Rapid Marches - His Capture and Death - End of the Struggle - Its Effects on the Government and Policy of India - Local Europeans Mutiny - Local Europeans absorbed in the Queen's Army - British and Native Force in India - Great Changes of Policy - Reflections and Conclusion.
  • Chapter: LIII. The Hudson's Bay Company
    The Hudson's Bay Company - Termination of its Monopoly - Discovery of Gold Mines in its Territory - The Colony of British Columbia founded - Vancouver's Island - Speech of Sir E. Bulwer Lytton - The Atlantic and the Pacific - Proposed Anglo-American Confederation - Mr. Locke King's Act for Abolishing the Property Qualification of Members of Parliament - Evils of the old System - Abortive Attempt to abolish the Privilege of Freedom from Arrest for Debt enjoyed by Members of Parliament - Parliamentary Reform - Agitation by Mr. Bright - The Reform Bill of Lord Derby's Cabinet - Speech of Mr. Disraeli - Novel Features of the Measure - Objections to the Bill - Its Exclusion of the Working Classes - Secession of Mr. Walpole and Mr. Henley from the Ministry - Their reasons for this Step - A Uniform Franchise - Electoral Districts - Resolution of Lord J. Russell - Seven Nights' Debate on the Second Reading - Speeches of Lord J. Russell, Lord Stanley, Mr. Horsman, Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, Sir Hugh Cairns, Mr. Bright, Mr. Cardwell, Lord Palmerston, Mr. Whiteside, Sir J. Pakington, Mr. Gladstone, Sir Robert Peel, and Mr. Disraeli - Defeat of the Government - Dissolution of Parliament - General Election - Debate on the Address - An Amendment carried against the Government - Resignation of the Cabinet of Lord Derby - His Complaint of Unfair Treatment - Lord Palmerston's Administration.
  • Chapter: LIV. The Italian Question
    The Italian Question - Its influence on English Parties - Views of Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, and Lord J. Russell - The Dream of Italian Unity - Difficulties - Austria and the Italian Princes - The Emperor Napoleon - Rumours of War - Speech of Victor Emmanuel - Secret Alliance between France and Piedmont - Marriage of the Princess Clothilde with Prince Napoleon - The Austrian Manifesto - Appeal to Germany - Counter Manifesto of Piedmont - Count Cavour on England - Austrian Ultimatum- Preparations for War - Anxiety in England about the Policy and Aims of the French Emperor - His Explanation of his Views - Antagonism between France and Austria - Congress proposed by Russia, and urged by England, in vain - Austrian Threat against Piedmont - Defiance of Victor Emmanuel - Effect produced in England by the News of the Austrian Invasion - Lord Malmesbury remonstrates - Manifesto of the Emperor of Austria.
  • Chapter: LV.
    Napoleon appeals to the Corps Legislative - Garibaldi; his views; interview with Victor Emmanuel - Austrians cross the Ticino - Excitement in Italy - The Army of Victor Emmanuel - Napoleon Joins the Army - Ovation at Genoa - Battle at Genestrello - Montebello - 1Triumph of the Allied Armies - Victory at Palestro - Gallantry of Victor Emmanuel and the Zouaves - Battle of Magenta - Triumphal Entry into Milan - Proclamation of the King - Popularity of Cavour - Fight at Malegnano - Great Victory at Solferino - Garibaldi in Lombardy - Battle-field of Solferino after the Engagement - The Quadrilateral - Count Cavour and Napoleon - Truce at Villafranca; opposed by Cavour; his resignation - Basis of a Treaty of Peace - United Italy-Napoleon's Proclamation.
  • Chapter: LVI.
    Meeting of Zurich Conference - The Restoration of Grand Dukes proposed - Strong feeling at Florence - Address from the Provisional Government - Grand Reception at St. Cloud - Napoleon's Explanation of the Peace - The Pope's views upon Italy - Entry of the Piedmontese into the Pontifical States - Condition of Rome - Deputation of Romanese to the King of Sardinia - Letter to the Emperor from the Pope - His Answer - State of Parties at Home - Prorogation of Parliament.
  • Chapter: LVII. Garibaldi
    Garibaldi - His views on the Peace - Interview with Victor Emmanuel - The Ratazzi Ministry - Garibaldi and Italian Unity - His Operations in Central Italy - He issues a Proclamation to the Volunteers - Jealousy regarding him - Resignation of Ratazzi - Cavour again in Office - Nice - Sacrifice of Savoy - Rome and Venetia - Garibaldi and his Army - View of Cavour on this Expedition - They start for Sicily - Their Campaign.
  • Chapter: LVIII. The Battle of Marsala
    The Battle of Marsala - Fall of Palermo - Treachery of the Neapolitan Generals - Atrocities committed by their Troops - Garibaldi assumes the Dictatorship of Sicily - Garibaldi on board the British Ship Hannibal - His Convention with the Neapolitan Generals - His Address to the People of Palermo - Italian Enthusiasm - Garibaldi's Exhortation to the Sicilian Priests - Ugo Bassi - Public Thanksgiving to the God of Battles - His Marvellous Success - Arrival of La Farina to conduct the Administration - His Attempt to usurp the Dictatorship - He is shipped off by Garibaldi - Departure of the Neapolitan Garrison - Services of the British Admiral Mundy - Garibaldi's Gratitude - His Letters to the Queen and Lady Shaftesbury.
  • Chapter: LIX.
    The Battle of Milazzo - Imminent Danger of Garibaldi - Saved by Colonel Missori - Capitulation of the Garrison - The Victor washing his Shirt- Messina surrenders to the Garibaldians - Syracuse and Augusta evacuated - Garibaldi Master of Sicily - Alarm and Concessions of Francis II - Letter of Victor Emmanuel to the General, dissuading him from the Invasion of Naples - He refuses Compliance - His Magical Influence over the Sicilians - The Civil Administration - The Dictator's Wardrobe - Picture of his Army - The Albion Club - Invasion of Naples - Precursory Descent on the Calabrian Shore - Its Wanderings among the Mountains - Attempt of the King of Naples to bribe Garibaldi, and to have him assassinated - Garibaldi lands with his Army in Calabria - Capitulation of Reggio - A romantic Scene - Enthusiasm of the Calabrians - Demoralised State of the Neapolitan Army - Surrender of Scylla - Joy of the Population - Progress of the Invaders - Tiriolo and Savonia evacuated - The Liberator at Salerno - Intrigues of Count Cavour - The Committee of Order - Annexation of Naples and Piedmont - Garibaldi resists, but professes unbounded Loyalty to Victor Emmanuel - Alexandre Dumas, a Revolutionary Agent at Naples - Don Liberio Romano - Departure of the King - His parting Proclamation- Invitation to the Dictator - His Triumphal Entry into the City - His Proclamation to the People - Rejoicings at Naples - Garibaldi's Reforms - His Interview with the English Ambassador on board the Hannibal - Lamoricierè and the Volunteers-Invasion of the Papal States by Victor Emmanuel - Its Result - Skirmishing between the Royal Troops and the Garibaldians - Battle of the Volturno - Treatment of the Garibaldian Prisoners - Victor Emmanuel's Progress through Southern Italy - Garibaldi's Address to the People - Meeting between Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi at Teano - Surrender of Capua - Garibaldi's Address to the Volunteers - Triumphal Entry of the King into Naples - Garibaldi's Reception at the Royal Palace - His Farewell Address to the Volunteers - His Departure for Caprera.
  • Chapter: LX.
    The Session of 1860 - Italian Affairs - The Cession of Savoy and Nice- Central Italy - Lord Normanby - Mr. Gladstone's Financial Statement - Commercial Treaty with France - The Paper Duties: their Abolition resisted by the Lords - Question about their right to Reject a Money Bill - The Duties Abolished by Resolution of the Commons - Affairs of India - Mr. James Wilson sent out as Finance Minister - Sir Charles Trevelyan, Governor of Madras, recalled for Insubordination - Death of Mr. Wilson - Mr. Laing succeeds him - Success of his Financial Scheme - Re-organisation of the Indian Army - Close of the Session - Massacres in Syria - The French Expedition.
  • Chapter: LXI. Another War in China
    Another War in China - The Treaty of Tien-tsin - Treachery of the Chinese - Repulse of the British Forces - Second Mission of Lord Elgin - He is joined by Baron Gros, the French Plenipotentiary - Both the Ambassadors shipwrecked - Ultimatum of the Plenipotentiaries - It is scouted by the Chinese Government - Capture of the Taku Forts - Occupation of Tien-tsin - More Chinese Treachery - Imprisonment and torture of a number of English Officers and the Times Correspondent - Defeat of the Chinese - The Allies march on Pekin - The Emperor's Summer Palace looted by the French, and burned by the English - Surrender of Pekin - Submission of the Chinese, and Ratification of the Treaty.
  • Chapter: LXII.
    Opening of the Session - Visit of the Prince of Wales to America- Death of the Duchess of Kent - Italian Affairs - Siege and Fall of Gaeta - Death of Cavour - American Affairs in 1861 and previously - Causes of Disruption - Tariff - Slavery - John Brown - Election of Mr. Lincoln - Secession of South Carolina - The Two Inaugurals - Fort Sumter - More Secessions - England's Proclamation of Neutrality - Battle of Bull Run - State of the West - Affair of the Trent - Session of 1861 - Repeal of the Paper Duty - Deaths of Lord Herbert and Sir James Graham - Founding of the Order of the Star of India - The Volunteers.

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