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Cassells Illustrated History of England


From the death of the Prince Consort to the Geneva Convention

Ten years have passed since the publication of the Eighth Volume of Cassell's History of England, which originally ended with a notice of the lamented death of the late Prince Consort. The reader is now presented with a continuation of the narrative nearly to the present day. He will not fail to note the striking difference between the complexion of the story of England's fortunes as traced in the preceding Volume, and that which is exhibited here. In the twelve years from 1860 to 1872, no Crimean War stirred every 'English heart to its depths - no mortal struggle against a revolted army made critical appeal to the valour and energy of the English race. As if dissatisfied with the result of the war with Russia, England has since that time retired more decidedly than ever from intervention in foreign politics; and neither the dismemberment of Denmark her ancient ally in 1864, nor the violent destruction of the independence of Hanover, nor the rending of Alsace and Lorraine from France, appeared to our Parliament and people a sufficient cause for armed interference. Yet, moving ever onwards in the path of industrial and social progress, England has effected, since 1861, a variety of changes in her domestic polity, and extended the dominion of man over nature by a thousand new applications of science to the useful arts, the record of which in the following pages will be found of no ordinary interest. A new Reform Bill has brought the masses who earn their bread by the labour of their hands within the pale of the Constitution; the Irish Church has been disestablished; finally, the education of the whole people, for the first time in English history, has been made a matter of public enactment and provision. Of the memorable struggles which attended the passing of these measures through Parliament, the reader will here find a full and coherent account. To the exposition of the industrial progress of the nation during the last twenty years, the six closing chapters of the Volume have been devoted. The movement of population, the development of commerce, the invention of new methods for facilitating human intercourse and quickening the transmission of ideas, and the wonderful growth of all forms of industry connected with the working of metals, especially of iron - on all these points the concluding chapters will be found to contain a large amount of accurate information, compiled from authentic sources.

The peaceful tenor of the public life of England, during the period comprised in the present Volume, has not been shared by our kinsmen across the Atlantic, nor by the neighbour nations of the Continent. A conflict of four years' duration was necessary before the Northern Americans succeeded in overcoming the resistance of the South, and preventing the dissolution of that federal union to which they are so justly attached. Since the date at which our last Volume closed, Denmark has been deprived of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, Austria utterly defeated in a seven weeks' war and driven out of Germany, the unification of the kingdom of Italy continued and completed, Germany transformed from an unwieldy on federation into a. powerful Protestant empire; while France, crushed and conquered in a brief war, has been compelled to surrender two fair provinces to Germany. Perhaps no period of ten years in the history of Europe ever witnessed more memorable events, more extraordinary and unexpected vicissitudes. These things, in spite of our neutrality, cannot but be deeply interesting to Englishmen, and the reader will accordingly find the great wars, revolutions, and negotiations of America and the Continent described at some length in the following pages.

The differences between Great Britain and the United States arising out of the depredations of the Alabama, and other cruisers of her class - the negotiations which succeeded in adjusting those differences by a treaty referring them to international arbitration - and the proceedings of the Tribunal of Arbitration appointed under that treaty, will be found narrated, in their proper sequence and connection, in the forty-fifth and forty-sixth chapters.

Her Majesty Queen Victoria still reigns, as she reigned when the last preceding Volume of this History appeared, over a loyal and united people. After the great and crushing sorrow of her life, it has pleased Providence to send her no scanty share of those alleviations which help us to bear mortal ills with resignation; she has seen, since the death of the Prince Consort, most of her children happily and honourably married; death has made no more encroachments on the family circle; and the young life of blooming grandchildren has come to lead her thoughts towards the joys and interests of a new generation. That a similar immunity from great afflictions may attend Her Majesty during the next decennial period of English history, must be the sincere prayer of all her subjects.

That a due proportion has invariably been observed in the narration of events so near to us, or that amidst the embarrassing abundance of materials, nothing has been omitted which ought to have been noticed, nothing related which ought to have been omitted, it would perhaps be hazardous to assert. It is hoped, however, that the moving picture of English and European life, from 1861 to 1872, has, on the whole, been transferred to these pages with fidelity and impartiality; and in this hope the Ninth Volume of Cassell's Illustrated History of England is confidently commended to the indulgent judgment of the public.

Table of content

  • Chapter: I.
    The Queen's Visit to Ireland - The Queen at Balmoral - Felicity of the Royal Family - The Prince Consort at Edinburgh - The Court returned to Windsor - Investiture of the Order of the Star of India - Illness of the Prince Consort - His death - Its effect on the public mind - Profound grief of the Nation- General and spontaneous mourning - The Funeral - Deep sense of the loss sustained by the country - Message of the Queen to Parliament - Tributes to the Prince's memory - Overwhelming grief of the Queen - Address from Maori chiefs - Services of the Prince Consort to the cause of social progress - Industrial Exhibitions - His interest in the working classes - The Prince as a landlord and employer - Encouragement of agricultural improvements - His management of the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall - Last Report of the Commission of which the Prince Consort was President - General view of the Prince's character - His personal appearance - His talents and temperament - His love of truth, and strong sense of duty, candour, and tolerance - His intense sympathy with earnest workers - His abhorrence of flattery, vice, and meanness - His anxiety to attain perfection in everything - The freshness of his feelings - Sympathy with the young - Felicity of the Prince's marriage - His love to the Queen - Her Majesty's devotion to his memory - Notice of his speeches.
  • Chapter: II.
    The Year 1862 - Affair of the Nashville - Meeting of Parliament - Speech of Mr. Disraeli on the death of the Prince Consort - The Revised Code - Reasons for its introduction - Adopted with modifications - Church Rates - Debates on the Civil War in America - Marriage of the Princess Alice - State of things in China - New Game-law introduced by Sir Baldwin Leighton - Reflections on it - Mr. Cobden attacks the Ministry - Reply of Lord Palmerston - Garrote robberies - Gift of Mr. Peabody - Affair of Aspromonte - Revolution in Greece - Banishment of King Otho - Election of Prince George of Denmark - Cession of the Ionian Islands - War in America - Operations in Tennessee - Battle of Pittsburgh - Landing - Campaign in Virginia - M'Lellan Commander-in-Chief - Lands his army on the York peninsula - Advances on Richmond - Battles of the Chickahominy - M'Lellan retreats - The troops re-embarked - Jackson forces Pope back upon Washington - Lee invades Maryland - Fall of Harper's Ferry - Battle of Antietam - Lee retreats - Burnside supersedes M'Lellan - Battle of Fredericksburg - Bragg's invasion of Kentucky - Results in failure - Naval operations - Taking of Roanoke - Exploits of the Merrimac - Her fight with the Monitor - Farragut passes the forts and captures New Orleans - Butler is made Governor - His famous proclamation - Execution of Mumford - Steps taken towards the emancipation of the slaves - Mr. Lincoln's message on the indivisibility of the United States - Reflections on it.
  • Chapter: III.
    The International Exhibition of 1862: Its Origin: Erection of the Building1 at Brompton: Description of its Principal Features: Comparison of it with the Building of 1851: Ceremonial at the Opening - Multifarious Contents of the Exhibition - Number of Exhibitors, British and Foreign - The French Department - Collection of Pictures - Close of the Exhibition - Number of Persons that had visited it.
  • Chapter: IV.
    The year 1863 - Summary - Meeting of Parliament - Marriage of the Prince of Wales: Public Rejoicings: Fatal Accidents in London: Votes by Parliament - Mr. Gladstone's Financial Statement: His Proposal for the Taxation of Charities: Objected to and abandoned - Mr. Dillwyn's Motion on the Irish Church: Speech of Mr. Bernal Osborne: Reply of Sir Hugh Cairns - Close of the Session - Polish Insurrection of 1863: Its Origin and Progress: Attitude of Prussia: Diplomatic Intervention by Earl Russell: Attitude of France: Russia offers an Amnesty: Earl Russell's Six Points: Russia declines to entertain them: France proposes to England and Austria a Definite Engagement for Common Action: Proposal declined: Reflections: Mouraviff takes the -Command against the Insurgents: Affair of the Zamoyski Palace: Suppression of the Insurrection - Rupture of Diplomatic Relations with Brazil: How occasioned - Corn Ships from America - The Relief Fund - Dr. Pusey Indicts Mr. Jowett for Heresy- Seizure of the Alexandra - The Prince of Wales at the Guildhall: At the Oxford Commemoration - Inauguration of Two Albert Memorials - Deaths of Eminent Men in 1863: Sir James Outram; Sketch of his Career: Lord Clyde; His Achievements and Character: Lord Lyndhurst: Sir George Lewis: Archbishop Whately; His Remarkable Character and Powers; Sketch of his Career - Affairs in Japan: Murder of Mr. Richardson: Compensation Refused by the Prince of Satsuma: Kajosima, his Capital, Bombarded and Burnt.
  • Chapter: V.
    The American Conflict in 1863 - Hooker takes the Command of the Army of the Potomac: Turns the Left Flank of Lee's, Army - Battle of Chancellorsville - Death of Stonewall Jackson - Defeat of the Federals - Hooker's Congratulatory Order - Lee resolves to Invade Pennsylvania: His Motives - Hooker is Superseded by Meade - Battles of Gettysburg - Grand Confederate Charge: Repulsed with fearful Slaughter - Lee retires into Virginia - Description of Vicksburg: Its great Strength - Grant resolves to Reduce it: Failure of the First Attempts - Fighting on the Mississippi - A " Yankee Trick " - Grant occupies Jackson - Siege and Capitulation of Vicksburg - 1The Position of Chattanooga: Its Importance to the Confederates - Battle of Murfreesboro - Bragg retires - Advance of Rosecrans - Bragg Abandons Chattanooga: Battle of Chickamanga - Burnside occupies East Tennessee - Grant Supersedes Rosecrans: Defeats Bragg near Chattanooga - Waning Prospects of the Confederacy - Operations in Virginia - Affair of Mine Run - Termination of the Campaign - Coast Warfare - Defeat of the Federals at Galveston: At Sabine Pass - Fall of Fort Pulaski and of Pensacola - Siege of Charleston - Attack by Iron-clads on Fort Sumter: Its Failure - Gillmore's Plan of Attack: Occupies Morris Island: Bombards Fort Wagner - Death of Colonel Shaw at the Head of a Negro Regiment - Employment of Negroes on Both Sides - The " Swamp Angel " - Charleston Bombarded - Wanton Destruction - Fort Wagner Taken - Affairs of Mexico: Origin of the Joint Expedition of England, France, and Spain: Difference of View among the Allied Powers: The French Pamphlet: General Almonte: England and Spain abandon the Expedition: French repulsed at Puebla: Arrival of Reinforcements under General K Forey: Capture of Puebla: The French enter Mexico: Assembly of Notables offer the Imperial Crown to Maximilian; He hesitates to accept it - Captain Speke's Discoveries in Central Africa: His Death.
  • Chapter: VI.
    Course of Events in 1864 - Pacific Temper of the Nation - Opening of Parliament - Birth of an Heir to the Prince of Wales: Speech of Lord Derby on the event - Sterility of the Debates in this Session - Sentiments of Mr. Cobden - Mr. Gladstone's Financial Statement: Elasticity of the Revenue: Application of the Surplus- Mr. Stansfeld, Junior Lord of the Admiralty, named in connection witch Plots against the Emperor Napoleon's Life: Discussion of the matter in Parliament: He resigns Office - Mr. Disraeli moves a Vote of Censure on the Government: it is rejected by a narrow majority - Mr. Gladstone's remarks on the Extension of the Suffrage - Resignation of Mr. Lowe - Convocation passes a Synodical Judgment on "Essays and Reviews Speech of the Lord Chancellor on the Judgment: Reply of the Bishop of Oxford - Prorogation of Parliament - Visit of Garibaldi to England: He arrives at Southampton: his reception in London: at the Crystal Palace - Death of the Duke of Newcastle: Sketch of his Career; and of that of Mr. Senior - The Shakespeare Tercentenary: Speech, of Professor Max Müller - Progress of Rationalism: Sentence on Dr. Rowland Williams and Mr. Wilson - Arguments on the Claim of Bishop Gray to Metropolitan Jurisdiction over the See of Natal - Speech of Mr. Disraeli at Oxford on Clerical Rationalists.
  • Chapter: VII.
    The Ashantee War - Narrative of the Maori War in New Zealand: Its Origin in the Purchase of the Waitara Block: General Cameron take3 the Command: Sir George Grey appointed Governor: Affair of Orakau: Repulse at Tauranga: Submission of some of the Tribes - Chinese Affairs: Taeping Rebellion Put Down: Colonel Gordon: Massacre at Soochow- - Japanese Affairs: The Shore Batteries at Simonosaki Silenced or Taken: Prince of Nagato Submits - Irish Affairs: Great Fenian Meeting-: Riots at Belfast: Their exciting Cause the O'Connell Demonstration in Dublin: The Orangemen Burn O'Connell in Effigy: Excesses of the Catholic Mob: The Navvies and the Ship-Carpenters: Troops Called Out: Rioters Tried before Baron Deasy.- The Judge's Speech.
  • Chapter: VIII.
    The Schleswig-Holstein Question: Its Complexity: Statistical Details: Languages in Schleswig: History of its Connection with Denmark: Its Union with Holstein Ratified in 1386: Events of 1460: Schleswig Partitioned: Lex Regia of 1665: Law of Succession in Schleswig and in Holstein: Ducal Schleswig Annexed to Denmark in 1713: Treaty of 1720: Cession of 1773: Patent of 1846: Relations of Hoi. stein to Denmark: Doubtful Nature of the German Claim that Schleswig and Holstein are of right Indivisible: Summary of Conclusions: War in the Duchies in 1818: Battle of Idsted: Peace in 1850: Arrangements of 1851-2: Treaty of London to Settle the Succession; Its inherent Defects: Denmark Governs the Duchies Harshly: Eider Dane Party: Grievance as to Language: Common Constitution for the Danish Monarchy: Differences between Denmark and the German Diet: Proclamation of March 30, 1863: Excitement in Germany: Ordinance of November 18,1863: The Diet Decrees Federal Execution: Federal Troops Enter Altona; Occupy Holstein: English Diplomacy in regard to the Duchies to the end of 1863: Death of the King of Denmark: The Prince of Augustenburg: Action of Prussia and Austria: Denmark counts on receiving Aid from the Western Powers: Austro-Prussian Army Enters Schleswig: The Dannewerke Abandoned: Prussians Storm the Lines of Düppel: Diplomatic Exertions of Earl Russell; He is Reminded of the Treaty of 1720: General Aversion to War in England: Great Meeting at Manchester: Attitude of France: England might have interfered with effect: Reflections: Naval Action off Heligoland: Conference held in London: Armistice: The Conference Fails: Renewal of Hostilities: Prussians Take Alsen: End of the War: Denmark Cedes the Duchies to Austria and Prussia: They are Governed by Commissioners: Symptoms of Disunion between the Two Powers - Convention of September between France and Italy: Removal of the Capital to Florence.
  • Chapter: IX.
    American Civil War in 1864: Battle of Olustee: Federal Failures in Louisiana and Arkansas: Grant takes the Command in Virginia; He crosses the Rapidan: Battles of the " Wilderness" and Spotsylvania Court House: Terrible Slaughter: Death of Stuart: Fighting on the North Anna: Battle o£ Cold Harbour: Grant transfers his Army to the South of the James River: Fruitless Assault on Petersburg: End of the Campaign: Inexhaustible Resources of the North: Early Invades Maryland; Menaces Washington; Is twice Defeated by Sheridan: Devastation of the Shenandoah Valley by Sheridan's Order: Sherman Advances into Georgia: Fall of Atlanta: Hood Invades Tennessee Repulsed from Nashville: Sherman's Great March: Fall of Savannah: The Alabama and the Kearsarge: Capture of the Mobile Forts by Farragut: The Florida at Bahia: The St. Albans Raid: Constitutional Amendment Abolishing Slavery: Re-election of Mr. Lincoln - Maximilian accepts the Mexican Crown: Arrives in Mexico: His progress in putting down the Juarists - Destructive Cyclone at Calcutta.
  • Chapter: X.
    Meeting of Parliament: The Queen's Speech - The American War: The beginning of the end - State of India - State of New Zealand- Affairs at Home: Debate on the Repeal of the Malt Tax; Mr. Neate's Amendment; Rejection of Sir F. Kelly's Motion: Extension of the remission of the Fire Insurance Duty: Mr. Gladstone's Budget: The Army and Navy Estimates: Premonitory symptoms of future legislation: Mr. Baines' Parliamentary Reform Bill: Mr. Lowe's Speech on Democracy: Mr. Villiers' Union Charge- ability Bill: Bill for the Erection of New Law Courts; Satisfaction expressed thereat; Objections thereto; Site chosen for the Buildings: The University Tests Bill introduced by Mr. Göschen; Mr. Grant Duff's support; Mr. Gladstone's opposition; Defeat of Lord Cranbourne's Amendment: The Roman Catholic Oaths Bill of Mr. Monsell; Mr. Monsell's Speech; Opposition in the Commons; The Bill read a second time; Opposition and Defeat in the Lords - Death of Cardinal "Wiseman - The Case of Dr. Colenso versus Dr. Gray: Judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
  • Chapter: XI.
    The Edmunds Scandal: Its Origin: The Lord Chancellor's connection with it - The Wilde Scandal: Report of Select Committee: Motion of Mr. Ward Hunt - Lord Westbury resigns the Seals: Succeeded by Lord Cranworth - Parliament Dissolved - General Election: Mr. Mill returned for Westminster: Mr. Gladstone rejected by Oxford University; Returned for South Lancashire: Large Liberal Majority - The Road Murder - Accident on the Matterhorn - Speculative Enterprise - The Cattle Plague: Official Description of the Malady: High Percentage of Fatal Cases: Orders in Council - The Milk Supply.
  • Chapter: XII.
    State of Ireland in 1865 - The Fenian Conspiracy: Origin of the Brotherhood: Its rapid Development after the Cessation of the American War: Its Constitution and Laws: Measures of Lord Wodehouse: Arrest of Stephens, the Head Centre; His Escape from Richmond Bridewell: Fenian Prisoners tried by Special Commission: Case of Thomas Luby - Reflections on Irish Disaffection.
  • Chapter: XIII.
    Deaths during the Year 1865 - Death of Leopold, King of the Belgians: His Life: His Connection with England - Death of Lord Palmerston: Account of his Career: His Early Life in Parliament: He is Tory till 1830: He then joins the Grey Ministry: Palmerston as Foreign Secretary: He becomes Premier: Summing up of his Character - Death of Cobden: Words of Mr. Bright on his Death: His Early Years: His share in the Repeal of the Corn Laws- Sir R. Peel's and Palmerston's Opinions - Cobden's General Views Success of his Free Trade Policy: Monster Subscription for him: Views on Peace and War: The French Commercial Treaty: Aims of his Life.
  • Chapter: XIV.
    Foreign Affairs - Quietness of the Situation - Debate on Poland - The English Prisoners in Abyssinia: Debate in Parliament - French Politics - The Roman Question - The Pope's Encyclical Letter - Napoleon goes to Algeria: Proclamation to the Arabs and Pamphlet on their Condition - French Finance: Criticisms of M. Thiers - The French Fleet at Portsmouth - Prussia and Austria - The Convention of Gastein - Contests between the Prussian Government and the Chamber - Austrian Affairs - Italy, Spain, Greece - Approaching troubles in Mexico.
  • Chapter: XV.
    American War in 1865: Approaching end of the Struggle: Sherman continues his March; Enters South Carolina: Systematic devastation of the Country: Abandonment of Columbia; The City nearly destroyed by fire: Evacuation of Charleston: Federal Flag again raised on Fort Sumter: Affair of Bentonville: Sherman reaches Goldsboro', in North Carolina: Various attempts to close Wilmington Harbour; Failure of General Butler; The Fort reduced by General Terry: Schofieldbrought up from Tenessee; He occupies Wilmington, and advances to Goldsboro': Subjugation of Alabama: Sheridan defeats Early, and joins Grant before Petersburg: Lee attacks Fort Steadman; Is repulsed: Evacuation of Richmond; Terrible Scenes; The Federals enter the City: Lee retreats towards Lynchburg; Part of his Army, under Ewell, compelled to surrender: Lee beats off his Pursuers; Crosses the Appomattox River; Grant writes to him, urging him to surrender; Correspondence: Lee's line of Retreat barred by Sheridan; He agrees to surrender his Army; Meeting at Appomattox Courthouse; Terms of Capitulation: Lee's Farewell to his Army: Hostilities cease Everywhere: Capture of President Davis: Assassination of Mr. Lincoln; Attempt on the Life of Mr. Seward; Exasperation of the North; Probable motives of the Assassins: Immense exertions of the North during the War.
  • Chapter: XVI.
    Prosperous state of the Colonies and Dependencies - Extraordinary Prosperity of India - Sir C. Wood's Indian Budget - Canada: Anxiety of the English Government with regard to the American designs upon it: Money voted for the Defences of Quebec - New Zealand: The Maori War still continues: Mr. Cardwell's Policy - Insurrection of Negroes in Jamaica: Description of the Island; Its unsatisfactory condition: Account of the Riot: Excitement in the Island: Proceedings of Governor Eyre: Proclamation of Martial Law: The Suppression j Its ruthless character: Anderson's Evidence: Colonel Kobbs and the Maroons: Colonel Elkington's Letter: Provost-Marshal Ramsay: Cases of Grant, M'Intosh, and Clarke: Case of G. W. Gordon; He is taken from Kingston to Morant Bay; His Trial; Circumstances of his Execution: Appointment of a Royal Commission: Indictment of Governor Eyre, General Nelson, and Lieutenant Brand: Charge of the Lord Chief Justice of England - Condition of Jamaica under Sir J. P. Grant.
  • Chapter: XVII.
    The Reform Question: Its History since 1832: It becomes a Government Question - Statistics Collected - The Compound Householder - Meeting of Parliament - The Government Reform Bill: Great Speech of Mr. Lowe: Formation of the " Cave " - The Easter Recess - Mr. Gladstone at Liverpool - The Debate on the Second „ Reading: Mr. Gladstone's Speech: Lord Grosvenor's Amendment; Mr. Lowe's support of it: The Division - The Redistribution Bill: Concessions of the Government: Continued Contest and frequent Divisions: Small Majorities for Government: Mr. Lowe on Redistribution: Tactics of the Opposition - The Question of Rateable Value: Mr. Ward Hunt's Motion is Defeated: Lord Dunkellin's Motion: Speech of Mr. Gladstone - Defeat of the Government - Resignation of the Ministry: Mr. Gladstone's Statement.
  • Chapter: XVIII.
    Lord Derby forms a Conservative Ministry - Speech of Mr. Disraeli in Buckinghamshire: England's Policy of Abstention: Fees no Difficulty in the Question of Reform - Lord Derby's Ministerial Statement - Lord Cranborne on Indian Finance - General Progress in India - The Reform League Meeting in Hyde Park prohibited by the Police: Speeches at Clerkenwell: Scene at the Marble Arch: Rioting: The Mob break down the Park Railings: The Military called out - Mr. Walpole's Concessions to the League - Debate on the Riots in Parliament - Close of the Session- Decrease of the Cattle Plague - Visitation of Cholera: Diminished Severity of the Disease in the course of August - The Atlantic Cable of 1866: Survey of Previous Attempts: Transient Success in 1858: Failure in 1865: Incidents of the Great Eastern's Voyage: She Lands the Cable at Heart's Content: Recovery and Completion of the Lost Cable of 1865 - Series of Reform Demonstrations; at the Guildhall; at Manchester; at Leeds; at Beaufort House - Meeting of Trades in St. James's Hall - The Commercial Crisis of 1866: Suspension of Overend, Gurney, & Co.; of Peto, Betts, & Co.: Great Panic in the City: Stoppage of the Agra and Masterman's Bank: Intervention of the Government - Practical Working of the System of Limited Liability - Marriages of the Princess Helena and the Princess Mary of Cambridge - Award in the Banda Prize-money Case - Loss of the London steamer - The November Meteors - Deficient Harvest, and consequent Distress.
  • Chapter: XIX.
    State of Ireland in 1866: Fenian Trials: Lord Wodehouse's Letter: Government introduces a Bill to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act in Ireland; it is rapidly passed into a Law: Numerous Arrests in Dublin: Arrival of Troops: Renewal of the Suspension Act in August; Mr. Maguire protests against it; it becomes Law: No actual Outbreak occurs in Ireland - Fenianism in America: Sweeny and Stephens: Fenian Raid into Canada; Skirmish with the Canadian Militia; Fenians retire: Another Raid from Vermont: Firm attitude of the American Government - Death and Character of the Queen Marie Amélie; of Dr. Whewell; of Bishop Cotton; of Mr. Keble.
  • Chapter: XX.
    Position of Austria and Prussia in Schleswig-Holstein in 1805: Divergent Views of the two Powers: Meeting of the Sovereigns: Convention of Gastein: Sale of Lauenburg - Opinion of the Prussian Law Officers on the Question of Succession in Schleswig- Holstein - Political Objects of Count Bismarck: His Interview with Napoleon at Biarritz - Proposals of the Secondary Powers - Disagreement between the two Powers about Holstein: Correspondence: Apprehensions of War - Circular of Count Mensdorff to the German Courts; Reply of Count Bismarck: General Govone at Berlin - Treaty between Prussia and Italy - Armaments: Mutual Recriminations: Austria Refuses to Disarm in Venetia: Scheme of Disarmament Breaks Down: Failure of an Attempt to come to an Understanding about the Duchies: Prussian Proposals for the Reform of the Confederation - Hopes and Fears of Italy: Overtures of Austria for the Cession of Venetia; They come to Nothing - Prussia Demands from Saxony the Reason of her Arming: Proceedings in the Diet - Efforts of the Neutral Powers for the Preservation of Peace: A Congress Proposed by France, England, and Russia: The Project Fails- Meeting of the Diet on June 1: Speech of the Austrian Envoy; Reply of the Prussian Envoy: Prussian Government Protests; Orders Manteuffel to Enter Holstein; Withdrawal of General Gablenz: Prussian Military Calculations: Feelings of the King: Prussian Circular on the Reform of the Confederation - Session of the Diet on June 14: Prussian Envoy declares the Confederation to be dissolved: Prussia sends a Summons to Hanover, Saxony, and Hesse Cassel; it being rejected, she Declares War against those States.
  • Chapter: XXI.
    The Military System of Prussia; its Reorganisation in 1859; its Efficiency and Completeness: Special Services - The Austrian Army; its Motley Composition: Difficulties attendant on Mobilisation-Importance to Austria of taking the Initiative - The Saxon Army - Forces of other Allies of Austria - The Italian Army - Summary of Opposing Forces - Attempts of Prussia to Excite an Insurrection in Hungary - Positions and Strength of the Field Armies of the Belligerents - The Hanoverian Army concentrates at Göttingen; marches upon Eisenach; is deceived by a Prussian ruse - The Bavarians fail to assist the Hanoverians - Prussian troops hurried up - Battle of Langensalza: Victory of the Hanoverians: They are compelled to Capitulate - Extinction of the Kingdom of Hanover - Reflections - Occupation of Cassel by the Prussians: Imprisonment of the Elector - The Saxon Army marches into Bohemia - Saxony overrun by the Prussians - Occupation of Dresden - Manifesto of the Emperor of Austria - General Orders of Marshal Benedek and Prince Frederick Charles - Prussian Invasion of Bohemia - Operations on the line of the Iser - Action of Münchengrätz - Rapid Advance of Prince Frederick Charles - Count Clam Gallas driven from Gitschin - Heavy Austrian Losses - The Army of Silesia - Address of the Crown Prince to the Soldiers - Passage of the Mountains at three points - Action of Trautenau; the Prussians repulsed - Actions of Soor and Burgersdorf - Action of Nachod; of Skalitz - Hungarian Prisoners - Defective Discipline - Concentration of the Second Army near Gradlitz - Communications opened with the First Army - Benedek's Faulty Strategy: He Concentrates his Army in Front of Königgrätz - King of Prussia arrives at Gitschin: Takes the Supreme Command of the Prussian Armies - Conference - Prince Frederick Charles determines to Advance - The Austrian Position - The First Army moves forward to Dub - Morning of the 3rd July - Battle of Königgrätz: Austrian Order of Battle: The Army of the Crown Prince Attacks the Austrian Right: The Prussian Guards seize Chlum: Benedek vainly attempts to dislodge them: General Retreat of the Austrians: Forces engaged: Loss on both sides - Cession of Venetia by Austria to France.
  • Chapter: XXII.
    Operations in Western Germany - The Bavarian Army: The 8th Federal Corps: Their endeavours to effect a junction: Falkenstein interposes his Army between them - Action of Wiesenthal - Affair of Hünfeld - Combat of Hammelburg - Battle of Kissingen - Defeat of the Bavarians - Falkenstein marches against the 8th Corps - Actions of Laufach and Aschaffenburg - Italian Prisoners - Prince Alexander of Hesse evacuates Frankfort: Defenceless state of the City: Partiality of the Inhabitants towards the Austrians: Entry of the Prussians: Their brutal and arbitrary behaviour: Heavy War Contributions - Death of Herr Fischer - General Manteuffel relieves Falkenstein - Compulsory Billeting - Burgomaster Fellner commits suicide - Frankfort annexed to Prussia - The Diet at Augsburg - Close of Hostilities in Bavaria- Military Operations in Italy - Prussian Suggestions - Signor Bernhardi - Note of M. d'Usedom - Prussia desires to abet a Revolution in Hungary - Inconsistency of Count Bismarck - La Marmora's strategic plan - Italian Declaration of War - The Italians cross the Mincio - Both Armies march for the Hills near Somma Campagna: Description of the Ground - Battle of Custozza: The Austrians gain the Victory - Retreat of the Italians: They fall back behind the Oglio - Losses on both sides - Futile Operations of the Volunteers under Garibaldi- La Marmora resigns the Command - Austria recalls most of her Troops from Italy - Advance of Cialdini - The Austrians retire behind the Isonzo - Naval Operations - Admiral Persano attacks Lissa - The Austrian Fleet comes up: Battle of Lissa: Gallantry of Admiral Tegethoff: The Italian Fleet defeated with heavy loss - Outcry against Persano: He is deprived of all Command - Advance of the Prussians after Königgrätz - Benedek retreats to Olmütz - The Archduke Albrecht appointed to the Command - Popularity of Benedek with the Army - The Prussians occupy Brünn and Prague - M. Benedetti at Brünn - Combat of Tobitschau - Austria saved from ruin by French mediation- Count Bismarck's Speech in the Prussian Chambers - The Prussians move forward from Brünn - Description of General Moltke - The King of Prussia at Nikolsburg - Conclusion of an Armistice - Peace Preliminaries signed at Nikolsburg - Review of the Prussian First Army on the Marshfield: Speech of King William - The Prussian Armies return home.
  • Chapter: XXIII.
    The Treaty of Prague: Articles respecting Italy, Saxony, and the South-German States - Harsh Terms imposed on Bavaria - Treaties with Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Baden, and Hesse Darmstadt: Secret Treaties between Prussia and these States; not divulged till 1867 - Summary of Prussian Acquisitions in consequence of the War - Treaty establishing the North-German Confederation: Population of the States composing it - Deputation from Hanover to the King of Prussia to petition against annexation: He rejects their prayer - Formal annexation of Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia in disregard of the Treaty of Prague - Treaty between Austria and Italy - Austria will not yield the Trentino - Surrender of the Iron Crown - Voting in Venetia for annexation to Italy - The Emperor Napoleon asks for a strip of German territory: It is refused - French Circular of September 16 - Resignation of M. Drouyn de Lhuys - Execution of the September Convention at Rome - The Pope's Speech to General Montebello - Military Revolt in Spain: It is suppressed - Revolution at Bucharest: Prince Couza expelled: Prince Charles of Hohenzollern elected Hospodar - America: Prostrate Condition of the South: Discord between the President and the Congress: Measures framed to tumble the classes formerly Dominant at the South: Constitutional Amendments: Civil Rights Bill: Re-admission of Tennessee into the Union.
  • Chapter: XXIV.
    Parliamentary Reform - Mr. Disraeli's Resolutions: The Government Explanation of them - The Secret History of the Proceedings of the Government - Sir John Pakington's Revelations - Secession of three Cabinet Ministers - Ministerial change of front - Meeting of Conservatives - Mr. Disraeli's Speech m the House - "Personal Rating" - Mr. Gladstone's exposure of the Ministerial Statistics - Attitude of the Liberals - The Second Reading- Meeting at Mr. Gladstone's House - Mr. Coleridge's " Instruction" - The "Tea Room Cabal" - The Bill in Committee - Mr. Gladstone's Defeat - Concessions of the Government - The Dual Vote, &c. - The Compound Householder - Continued Debates and Divisions - Mr. Hodgkinson's Amendment: Accepted by the Government - The Third Reading - Violent Attacks by Lord Cranborne and Mr. Lowe - The Bill in the House of Lords - The Lords' Amendments: Their Reception by the Commons - Final Passing of the Bill - Triumphant Position of Mr. Disraeli.
  • Chapter: XXV.
    Continued Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in Ireland - Debates on Irish. Questions - The Oaths and Offices Bill - Mr. Bruce's Bill on National Education - Extension of the Factory Acts - The Eight of Meeting in the Metropolitan Parks: Mr. Walpole's Proclamation: Meeting of Reformers in Hyde Park - Fenian Rising in Ireland - Preparations for a Fenian Attack upon Chester Castle - Fenian Attack upon a Police-van at Manchester: Murder of Sergeant Brett: Trial of the Prisoners: Execution of three of the Murderers - Explosion at the Clerkenwell House of Detention - Investigation into the Proceedings of Trades Unions at Sheffield.
  • Chapter: XXVI.
    The Year 1867 a Time of Peace in Europe - Failure of the Policy of Napoleon: His Letter to M. Ollivier - Celebrated Speech of M. Thiers - Proposed Cession of Luxemburg to France: History of the Question: The Cession warmly opposed in Germany: The Conference of London: Treaty concluded, by which Luxemburg Is Neutralised - Paris International Exhibition - Attempt on the Life of the Czar - Interview of Salzburg - Speech of M. Thiers on the Roman Question and the Unity of Italy: Declaration of M. Rouher: Scene in the Legislative Body - Austrian Affairs after the War - The Emperor appoints Count Beust his Foreign Minister - Count Andrassy is made Minister President for Hungary - Restoration of the Hungarian Constitution - The Dual System of Government established - Compromise between Austria and Hungary - The Delegations - Arrangement about the State Debt - Cis-Leithan Affairs - Amendment of the Constitution of 1861 - Confessional Laws - Coronation Ceremony at Pesth - Italian Affairs in 1867 - Ministry of Rattazzi - Arrest of Garibaldi- Bands cross the Roman Frontier, but are Defeated - Garibaldi escapes and renews the Invasion - The French Expedition leaves Toulon - Circular of M. de Moustier - The Pontifical Army- Battle of Montana - Defeat of the Garibaldians: Indignation against them in France - Speech of Cardinal Bellechose - United States: Conflict between the President and the Congress continues - State of things at the South - Negro ascendancy - Democratic opinion - Republican opinion - Reflections - Affairs of Mexico - Arrival of a Papal Nuncio at the end of 1864: Maximilian can come to no agreement with him - Relations with Borne broken off - Decree of October, 1865: its fatal consequences- Unfriendly attitude of the American Government: They press Napoleon to recall the French Troops: He at last consents - Decline of Maximilian's Fortunes in 1866 - The Empress visits Europe - She becomes insane - Progress of the Juarists - Mission of General Castelnau: Letter to him from the French Emperor - The French Officials urge Maximilian to Abdicate: He refuses: He is joined by Meramon and Marquez - Departure of the French - The Imperialists defeated at San Jacinto - Maximilian besieged in Queretaro: He is captured, tried, and executed - Juarez re-elected President of Mexico.
  • Chapter: XXVII.
    Parliament meets in November, 1867 - Votes money for the Abyssinian Expedition - Enquiry about the Letter from the Emperor Theodore to the Queen: it had been left unanswered - Altercations in the House - Parliament adjourned on 7th December - Meets again in February, 1868 - Summary of the Political Situation - Renewal of the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act in Ireland - Scotch Reform Bill - Mortifying Defeats of the Government - Disfranchisement of English Boroughs - Bill for the Abolition of Church Rates carried through both Houses - Retirement of Lord Derby from Office - Mr. Disraeli becomes Prime Minister - Lord Cairns accepts the Great Seal - Re-union of the Liberal Party, under Mr. Gladstone's leadership, on the basis of Justice to Ireland through the Disestablishment of the Irish Church - Important Irish Debate - Speeches of Mr. Bright, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Disraeli - The Irish Reform Bill: it is carried with little alteration - The Boundaries Bill - Resolutions on the Irish Church introduced by Mr. Gladstone - Lord Stanley gives notice of an Amendment - Debate - Speech of Mr. Lowe - The Amendment rejected - Public Meetings - The Discussion resumed - Defeat of the Government on the First Resolution - Different Courses supposed to be open to Mr. Disraeli - Ministerial Statement - Disappointment of the Liberals - Mr. Bright's attack on the Premier - Mr. Disraeli's Reply - Fourth Resolution, relating to the withdrawal of the Maynooth Grant and the Regium Donum, adopted by Mr. Gladstone - The Queen's Reply to the Address respecting Irish Temporalities - The Suspensory Bill: rejected in the Lords - Failure of the Negotiation with the Bishops respecting the Catholic University - Mr. Rearden's extraordinary Question: the Speaker's Reply - Act for the Purchase of the Telegraph Lines by the State - Mr. Disraeli on the Foreign Policy of his Government - Parliament Prorogued at the end of July - Dissolved in November - General Election - Mr. Gladstone Defeated in South Lancashire - Increased Liberal Majority- Mr. Disraeli resigns Office before Parliament meets - The Queen sends for Mr. Gladstone - The new Administration - Parliament adjourned to February, 1869.
  • Chapter: XXVIII. The Abyssinian Expedition
    The Abyssinian Expedition - Early History of Abyssinia - Embassy of Major Harris - Mr. Plowden appointed Consul - Rise of Kâsa, afterwards Theodore: Sketch of his Career - Deaths of Plowden and Bell - Mr. Cameron appointed Consul - Theodore's Letter to the Queen - Mr. Cameron visits Bogos and Kassala: Returns to Abyssinia - Despatches from England - Theodore imprisons Mr. Cameron and his suite: they are sent to Magdala - The British Government resolves to send out a Mission to obtain Cameron's release - Mr. Rassam selected as the head of the Mission - The Mission goes to Korata - Mr. Rassam is arrested at Zagè - Mr. Cameron and the other Captives re-arrested - Mr. Flad sent to England - The Captives are all sent to Magdala - Lord Stanley resolves to send out Artisans and Presents to Theodore - Recommendations of Colonel Merewether - The Captives being still detained, an Expedition is decided upon - Sir Robert Napier appointed to the Command - Sir Robert Napier arrives at Annesley Bay - The Abyssinian Chiefs friendly to the Expedition - Sir Robert's inter view with Kassa - Strength of the British Forces - The Army arrives within sight of Magdala - Description of the Fortress- Theodore's March from Debra Tabor to Magdala - Interview with Mr. Rassam - Massacre of the Native Prisoners - Concentration of the British Army on the Beshilo - March of Sir Charles Staveley - Action under the hill of Fala - Slaughter of the Abyssinians in the Dam-Wanz Ravine - Theodore sues for Peace - Theodore's First Letter - He releases the Captives - Last Interview with Mr. Rassam - Theodore's Second Letter - He sends all the Europeans to the English Camp - Attempts to Escape from Magdala - Advance of the Troops - Magdala is cannonaded and stormed - Death of Theodore - Burning of Magdala and Departure of the English Army - Sir Robert Napier is made a Peer.
  • Chapter: XXIX.
    Events of non-political interest in 1868 - Attempt to assassinate the Duke of Edinburgh: Execution of the Criminal - Visit of the Prince of Wales to Ireland - Murphy Riots at Birmingham and Ashton-under-Lyne - Mr. Disraeli at the Mansion House - Decision in the case of Martin v. Mackonochie - Death of Lord Brougham: Sketch of his Career - Death of Archbishop Longley, Sir James Brooke, Milman, and others - Rochefort and the Lanterne - Bismark on the Liberalism of Austria - The Russians take Samarcand - Progress of Russia in Central Asia - Cretan Insurrection - Assassination of Mr. M'Ghee - Progress of Reconstruction in the United States - Mr. Reverdy Johnson - Revolution in Spain: Serrano, Prim, and Topete assume power: Dethronement of Queen Isabella.
  • Chapter: XXX. The Year 1869
    The Year 1869-Difficulty of Disestablishing the Irish Church - Opening of Parliament - The Queen's Speech - Mr. Gladstone's Speech on introducing the Bill for Disestablishment: its Provisions relating to Persons and to Property - Private Endowments - Churches and Glebe-houses made over to the Church Body - Con version of the Church Property into Money - Disposal of the Surplus - Arrangements for the Extinction of the Regium Donum and of the Maynooth Grant - Conclusion of Mr. Glad stone's Speech - Mr. Disraeli, Sir Roundell Palmer, and others oppose the Bill - The Second Beading is carried - Bill passed in the Commons - Lord Redesdale's Question about the Coronation Oath: Earl Granville's Reply - Debates on the Bill in the House of Lords - Speech of the Bishop of Peterborough - Important Amendments carried in Committee - Bill passed in the House of Lords - Mr. Gladstone moves to disagree with most of the Lords' Amendments - The House of Commons accedes to the Proposal - The House of Lords adheres to its Amendments - Danger of a Collision between the Houses - Conference between Lord Cairns and Earl Granville - A Compromise effected - The Bill passes into Law - Predictions respecting its results not verified by the event.
  • Chapter: XXXI.
    Mr. Lowe's Budget for 1869: The Surplus swallowed up by the Abyssinian Expenditure: Remarkable Financial Device: Mr. Lowe creates a Surplus; and proposes a Remission of Taxes: The Budget carried - Discussion on the Enormous Cost of the Abyssinian Expedition: Explanation of Sir Stafford Northcote - The Endowed Schools Act of 1869: Speech of Mr. Forster: The Measure becomes Law - University Tests Bill: Passed in the House of Commons: Thrown out by the Lords - Conduct of Mr. O'Sullivan, Mayor of Cork: The O'Sullivan Disability Bill: The Mayor resigns his Office - Life Peerages Bill brought in by Lord Russell: Is thrown out on the Third Reading, on the Motion of Lord Malmesbury - State of the Country in 1869 - Irish Disaffection - Death of Lord Derby: Sketch of his Career - Death of Lord Gough - France in 1869: Pacific Attitude of the Emperor's Government: Dissolution of the Chambers: General Election: Senatus Consultum abrogating Personal Government: Violent Language of M. Rochefort: Meeting of the New Chambers: Inquiry into the Validity of Elections - Progress of the Spanish Revolution: Murder of Don Gutierrez de Castro: Meeting of the Cortes: It affirms the Monarchical Principle: Serrano appointed Regent: Prim wishes to offer the Crown to the Duke of Genoa: The offer declined: Republican Risings: Eloquent Speech of Senor Castelar - General Grant inaugurated President of the United States.
  • Chapter: XXXII. History of the Year 1869
    History of the Year - The Queen's Speech - The Irish Land Question - General Interest in the Question - The Government Bill is introduced by Mr. Gladstone: Its Provisions - Bill read a first time - Debate on the Second Reading - Attitude of the Opposition - Mr. Disraeli's Objections - The Bill is read a second time - Committee - Amendments in the Commons - General Success of the Government - The Third Reading - The Bill in the Lords- Lord Salisbury's and other Amendments - Compromises - The Bill sent down - Its Final Stages - It is read a third time.
  • Chapter: XXXIII. The Elementary Education Act of 1870
    The Elementary Education Act of 1870 - Introduced by Mr. Forster - The existing state of Education described - Deficiencies in the System - The Union and the League - Mr. Forster's Speech- Inspection to be no longer Denominational - The Conscience Clause - Power to compel attendance - Machinery of School Boards - How to be elected - School Fees and School Rates - The Twenty- fifth Clause - Religious Teaching in Board Schools - The Bill is favourably received as a whole - Mr. Dixon moves an Amendment to the Second Reading - Speech of Mr. Winterbotham - He advocates Secular Education - Mr. Dixon's Amendment withdrawn - The Bill in Committee - The Government accepts Mr. Cowper Temple's Amendment - Other Amendments - The Bill read a Third Time and passed - Is carried through the House of Lords, and becomes law.
  • Chapter: XXXIV.
    Seizure of English Travellers in Attica "by Greek Brigands: Negotiations for their Ransom: The Brigands demand an Amnesty before delivering up the Captives: Amnesty Refused: Conduct of the Greek Government: Troops moved up to Oropus: The Brigands murder four of the Captives: Great indignation in England: The matter is debated in Parliament - Naval and Military Estimates - The Budget - Bill to enable Clergymen to relinquish their Orders - Death of Sir Frederick Pollock - Of Lord Clarendon - Death of Charles Dickens: Sketch of his Career.
  • Chapter: XXXV.
    France at the beginning of 1870 - The Ollivier Ministry - Diminution of the Imperial Prestige. - Assassination of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bonaparte - Riots in Paris - The Prince tried and acquitted. - Strangeness of the Political Situation - The Emperor resolves to submit the new Reforms to the Popular Vote - Resignation of Count Daru and M. Buffet - Views and Feelings of the Emperor- Form of the Plébiscite - A large Majority vote in the Affirmative - The Army Vote - Considerable Minority vote in a hostile sense - Alarm of Napoleon. - Lull in European Affairs. - Offer of the Crown of Spain to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern - Speech of the Duc de Gramont in the French Chamber - The Circumstances of this Candidature examined - Prince Leopold directed by his Father to decline the Offer - The French Government endeavours to obtain a Pledge from the King of Prussia that the project shall not be revived - The King refuses - Excitement at Paris - Warlike Declarations in the French Chambers - Approved by the Majority - Fruitless opposition of the Left - Count Bismark causes to be published a draft Treaty prepared by M. Benedetti for the annexation of Belgium to France - Painful Sensation produced in England - French Explanations. - England resolves to stand by Belgium - Speech of Lord Russell - The Government prepares a Treaty guaranteeing the Independence of Belgium - Proposes it separately to France and Prussia - Treaty accepted by both Powers. - Tardiness of the French Movements - Positions of the French Army - Organisation and strength of the German Armies - The Emperor's plan of campaign - Affair of Saarbrück - Combat of Weissenburg - MacMahon's rashness in not concentrating - Battle of Wörth - MacMahon falls back on Châlons - Battle of Forbach. - Ferment at Paris - Change of Ministry - The Count de Palikao placed at the head of affairs - Vigorous Measures - General Trochu appointed Governor of Paris. - Proclamation of the King of Prussia - Bazaine in command at Metz - Advance of the German Armies - Battle of Borny - Battle of Vionville - Bazaine occupies the lines of Amanvillers - Battle of Gravelotte - The French Eight driven back - Bazaine retires under the guns of Metz.
  • Chapter: XXXVI.
    Reception in England of the News of the Battles round Metz - Associations for the Relief of the Sick and Wounded. - The Army of Chalons - Palikao's Plan - Noble bearing of the Empress - Mac- Mahon prefers another Plan - His indecision and slow progress - The 13th Corps - Battle of Beaumont - The French concentrate on Sedan - General Vinoy's Narrative - His Emissary in Sedan. - State of Paris - Trochu appointed Governor - Measures of Defence - Strength of the Forces within Paris - Expulsion of the German Residents - Speech of Thiers in the Corps Legislative - Trochu does not hope for success. - Disposition of the German Armies round Sedan - Battle of Sedan - Atrocities at Bazeilles - MacMahon wounded - General Wimpffen assumes the command - The French Army driven into Sedan - Capitulation - Letter of Napoleon to the King of Prussia - Interview of the Emperor with Count Bismark: and with the King - Napoleon is removed as a Prisoner to Wilhelmshöhe.
  • Chapter: XXXVII.
    Impression produced at Paris by the receipt of the News from Sedan- Meetings of the Chamber - Jules Favre proposes the deposition of the Emperor and his Dynasty - Illegitimate character of the Motion - The Session of the 4th September - Motion of Count Palikao - Motion of M. Thiers - The Mob break in and interrupt the Proceedings - Revolution - 'The Empress leaves the Tuileries and takes refuge in England - Suppression of the Senate - The Republic proclaimed at the Hotel de Ville - Trochu stipulates that he shall be made President of the Government - The new Ministry - Failure of an attempt to continue the Corps Legislative in being - State of feeling in England - Interview of Lord Lyons with Jules Favre - Prince Metternich explains to the French Minister the position of Austria - The Chevalier Nigra excuses the neutrality of Italy - No hope for France of an armed intervention.
  • Chapter: XXXVIII.
    Meeting of a General Council at the Vatican - 'The opinion of its inopportuneness very prevalent - Letter of Dr. Newman - Influence of the Jesuits - Dr. Cumming proposes to attend the Council - Subjects for Deliberation - Discussion of the Tenet of Papal Infallibility - " Janus " - Opening of the Council - Analysis of its Personnel - Introduction of the Schemata - Petition of the Majority in favour of the Definition - France and Austria remonstrate - Answer of Cardinal Antonelli - Counter-Petition - Discussion of the Constitution de Fide - Speech of Bishop Strossmayer - The Constitution is voted - Discussion on the Dogma of Infallibility - Terms of the Definition - It is adopted by a Majority - The Bishops of the Minority absent themselves from the Final Voting - Analysis of the Negative Votes - Political Importance of the Definition. - The Italian Government, after the Disasters of France, resolves upon the seizure of Rome - The King's Letter to the Pope - General Cadorna invades the Papal Territory - The Papal Troops Surrender after a short Resistance - Plebiscite on the Question of Annexation - Terms of Accommodation offered to the Holy See - The Pope refuses them. - Affairs of Spain - Don Enrique de Bourbon killed in a Duel - Election of the Duke of Aosta to the Spanish Throne - Assassination of General Prim.
  • Chapter: XXXIX.
    Paris after the Revolution of September 4 - Circular of Jules Favre - Reply of Count Bismark - Interview at Ferrieres. - Description of the Forts round Paris - The German Investment - Sortie of the 30th September - Siege of Strasburg. - Mission of M. Thiers. - Gambetta escapes from Paris. - Blockade of Metz - Sortie in Force on the 7th October - The Regnier Incident - Exhaustion of the Supplies - Capitulation of Metz and of the Army of the Rhine- Proclamation of Gambetta - Excitement in Paris - Plébiscite in Paris - Evacuation of Mount Avron. - Other Sieges: Fall of Laon, Toul, Phalsburg, &c. - Formation of the Army of the Loire - General d'Aurelle de Paladines - Defeats Yon der Tann at Coulmiers - The French re-occupy Orleans - Plans of d'Aurelle - Combat of Beaune-la-Rolande - Battles round Orleans - Orleans re-occupied by the Germans - Chanzy appointed to the Command of the Second Army of' the Loire - Battles of Villorceau and Vendome - Chanzy falls back on Le Mans. - Affairs in the East of France - Garibaldi arrives at Tours - Surprise at Chatillon - Belfort invested. - Russia declares that she will not be bound by the Black Sea Conference - Correspondence between Earl Granville and Prince Gortschakoff - Prussia proposes a Conference.
  • Chapter: XL.
    The War in the North of France - Manteuffel marches on Amiens - Battle of the Hallue - Surrender of Peronne - Battle of St. Quentin - British Ships sunk in the Seine - Battle of Le Mans - The Bombardment of Paris - Sortie in force - Trochu resigns - The Capitulation and Armistice - Retrospect of the Siege - The Germans occupy the Paris Forts - The War in the East - Battle of Nuits - Bourbaki marches to the relief of Belfort - Fighting on the Lisaine - The French defeated and driven into Switzerland - Meeting of the National Assembly - Surrender of Belfort - Fall of Gambetta - Negotiations for Peace - The Preliminaries are signed - Cession of Alsace and Lorraine - Indemnity of Five Milliards - 1The English Government declines to intervene - The impossibility of intervention traced to the character of Mr. Gladstone - Extraordinary language used by the Government in its communications about the War - A part of the German Army enters Paris - Preliminaries of Peace ratified by the National Assembly: which votes the Deposition of Louis Napoleon and his Dynasty - Creation of the New German Empire.
  • Chapter: XLI. History of English art since 1851
    Revival of an Appreciation of Gothic Art. - Welby Pugin: His Merits and Defects: His Work and Failures - Mr. Cockerell: His Theories on Architecture: His Design of the University Galleries at Oxford. - The Church Movement towards a Revival of Art - The Ecclesiological Society. - Foundation of Government Schools of Design - Building of the Houses of Parliament - Choice of an Architect - Style of the Building, and Conditions under which it was Built - The Tone of Thought about Art then prevailing. - Mr. Ruskin: His Writings: His Influence on Modern Art: The Opposition of the Press: His Public Lectures. - The Arundel Society- Its Origin, Objects, and Effect on Public Taste - The Exhibition of 1851 - The Expectations and Hopes which it excited - The Origin and Development of the Idea - The Plan of the Building; its Character and Ornamentation - The Contents of the Exhibition- Bad Effects of a Competition unaffected by Cost - Inferiority of - -English Art - Sculpture - Goldsmiths' Work - The Mediaeval Court - Glass-painting - 'State of the latter Art at the Time - Pugin's Revival of it - M. Henri Gérente - Mr. Morris' Improvements in Glass-painting and other Branches of Art - Mr. Skidmore: His Metal-work - Report of the Juries on the Exhibition. - The Defects of Modern Ornament. - Formation of a Museum of Manufacture. - Failure of former Schools of Design, and the Causes. - Department of Practical Art formed - The South Kensington Museum Built - The System of Teaching. - Revival of Domestic Architecture: Difficulties surrounding it. - Defects of Modern Building: Reasons of Failure. - The Oxford Museum: Description of Building - Mr. Skidmore's Iron-work, and Principles of Colouring. - The Albert Memorial. - Ecclesiastical Architecture - Revival of Mural Painting - Materials for Building. - Mr. Butterfield and Brick Architecture - All Saints, Margaret Street. - Basilica Churches - St. Barnabas, Oxford. - Merits of the Basilica Exhibition of 1862 - Improvement in Art Produce since 1851 - Ladies' Embroidery Society - The Medieval Court - Household Furniture - English Glass- cutting. - The Manchester Exhibition - Collection of Pictures there. - Death of Turner. - Appearance of the pre-Raphaelite Paintings in the Academy - Criticisms of the day on them - Mr. Ruskin's Championship - The Principles which guided their Work - Their eventual Success. - Mr. Millais: "The Return of the Dove:" " Peace Concluded: " " Autumn Leaves:" "A Dream of the Past:" "Sir Ysumbras." - Holman Hunt: "Rienzi:" "Claudio and Isabella.-" "The Hireling Shepherd:" " Light of the World: " " The Awakening Conscience: " " Saviour in the Temple:" " Scape- Goat." - Mr. Watts: His Painting in Westminster and Lincoln's Inn, and other Works. - Mr. Armitage: His Wall-paintings, and other Pictures. - The St. John's Wood School - Messrs. S. Solomon, A. Moore, Burne Jones, Poynter, Frith, Landseer, and Lewis. - Landscape Art - William Turner, and Others. - The Functions of Art. - Two Classes of Art Patrons.
  • Chapter: XLII.
    English Opinion on the Subject of Army Reform - Mr. Trevelyan's Agitation - Speech of Sir W. Mansfield - Meeting of Parliament - Mr. Cardwell's Bill - The History of Purchase - Tactics of the Opposition - The Bill in the Lords - Mr. Gladstone's coup d'état - The Lords pass a Vote of Censure - Attitude of the Liberals in the Commons. - The Budget - The proposed Match-Tax. - Changes at the Admiralty. - The Epping Forest Bill - Motion for the Disestablishment of the Church of England. - Abolition of Tests Bill.
  • Chapter: XLIII. Various Occurrences in 1871
    Various Occurrences in 1871 - Marriage of the Princess Louise - Sir Charles Dilke's Lecture - Illness of the Prince of Wales - The Electors of Greenwich - Public Meetings - Working of the Education Bill: The Twenty-fifth Clause: Justification of it - Napoleon lands at Dover - Resignation of the Speaker - Prince Arthur's Visit to Ireland - Riot m the Phoenix Park - Disaffection still rife in Ireland - Rise of the Home Rule Movement: Mr. Gladstone's Speech on it - Assassination of Judge Norman - Resolutions on Inter-Colonial Trade adopted by the Australian Colonies - Conference on the Black Sea Treaty: A new Treaty drawn up and agreed to: The Representative of Prance joins the Conference: Judicious Behaviour of the British Government.
  • Chapter: XLIV.
    Deaths of eminent Persons in 1871 - Sir John Burgoyne--Lord Ellenborough - Dean Mansel - Bishop Patteson: His Death at the hands of the Polynesian Natives - Mr. Babbage - Sir John Herschel - George Grote: Sketch of his Life and Character: A Champion of Philosophic Radicalism: His "History of Greece" - Sir William Denison: His Rule in Tasmania: at Sydney and Bombay.
  • Chapter: XLV. The history of the Alabama claims
    The Alabama Claims: Grounds of Complaint alleged by the United States against Great Britain: - 1. The Recognition of the Belligerent Rights of the South by this Country: This no just cause of Complaint. - 2. Proceedings in Violation of Neutrality - The Case of the Alabama - That of the Florida: History of this Cruiser: She is Built and Armed within British Jurisdiction: Captain Hickley's Report: Judicial Inquiry at Nassau: The Florida is Released: Is allowed to take in an excessive Supply of Coal: British Regulations of January, 1862: She is allowed to Coal again at Barbadoes: Termination of her Career - Case of the Shenandoah: Built in British and Armed in Portuguese Waters: Arrives at Melbourne: Account of her Proceedings there: Honest Endeavours of the Colonial Government to observe Neutrality: Her Commander succeeds in Enlisting a number of British Subjects at Melbourne: The Melbourne Government not in fault: Letter of Sir Charles Darling to the other Australian Governments: Supply of Coals to the Shenandoah: Her Cruise in the Arctic Seas: Returns to Liverpool and Surrenders to the British Government - Cases of the Sumter, Georgia, Nashville, Chickamanga, Tallahassee, and Retribution - Friendly Acts - Seizure of the Alexandra, and Detention of the Ironclads. - 3. Charge of General Unfriendliness: Refuted. - II. Negotiations previous to 1871: Lord Russell: Lord Stanley and Reverdy Johnson: Convention Rejected: Mr. Sumner: Negotiations between Mr. Fish and Lord Clarendon.
  • Chapter: XLVI. The history of the Alabama claims - Continued.
    The Alabama Claims. - III. - Recall of Mr. Motley. - Joint High Commission - Alabama Claims referred to it - Meets in February, 1871 - Progress of the Negotiation - British Commissioners propose Arbitration - Expression of Regret - Settlement of the Fisheries Question - Agreement to refer the San Juan Boundary Question to the Arbitration of the Emperor of Germany: History of that Question - Articles of Treaty for settling the Alabama Claims - Board of Arbitrators - The Three Rules - Proviso or Rider appended to them on the part of Great Britain - The Fenian Claims omitted from the Treaty - Treaty ratified by the Senate - Debate on it in the House of Lords - Lord Granville's Explanations: His Assertion of the Abandonment of the Indirect Claims - Perspicacity of Lord Cairns - Speech of Lord Derby. - Nomination of Arbitrators: They meet at Geneva - The Cases of the two Governments submitted - Order of Procedure - The American Case includes Claims for Indirect Losses - Sketch of the Contents of the British Case - Excitement in England on the Subject of the Indirect Claims - Negotiations for a Supplementary Treaty - The American Government in the Right - Counter Cases filed - Proceedings on 15th June - The Tribunal rules out the Indirect Claims - Both Governments accept the Decision - Opening of the Arbitration - Views of M. Staempfli - Unsuccessful Endeavour of the British Agent to obtain Time for Sir R. Palmer to prepare a fresh Argument - The Cases of the different Cruisers separately examined - The Tribunal requests the Opinion of Counsel - Deliberates with Closed Doors - Delivers its Decision - Termination of the Arbitration - Sir A. Cockburn's " Reasons for Dissenting." - Analysis of the Award- Observations upon it.
  • Chapter: XLVII.
    The Commune - Demonstrations of the Red Faction - Seizures of Cannon - Disbandment of the Army of Paris - Suppression of Journals - The Government resolve to retake the Cannon - The Central Committee dominant in Paris - Murder of Generals Clement Thomas and Lecomte - Loss of Vincennes - Military Preparations at Versailles - Manifesto of the 20th March - Efforts of Admiral Saisset - The International Society - Election of a Municipal Council, which takes the name of Commune - The Bank of France - Defeat of the Federals - Actions of the 3rd April - Storming of the Bridge of Neuilly - Decree of the Hostages - Arrest of the Archbishop of Paris and other Ecclesiastics - Decree for the Demolition of the Napoleon Column - It is carried into Execution on the 16th May - Decree for the Expropriation of Works and Factories - Declaration of the 19th April - Circular sent from Versailles - Conduct of the Freemasons - The Delegacy of War - Cluseret, Rossel, Delescluze, New Committee of Public Safety - The Commune orders M. Thiers House to be Destroyed - Proclamation concerning Petroleum and Mineral Oils.
  • Chapter: XLVIII.
    Return of French Soldiers from Germany - New Formation of the Army of Versailles under Marshal MacMahon - The Batteries fire against Paris - Rapid progress made - Forts Issy and Vanves regained - Breach made at the Point du Jour - Endeavours to obtain an entrance without employing force ineffectual - Rampart deserted on the 21st May - The Troops obtain admission: They gradually push back the Federals - Occupation of the Palais du Corps Legislatif - Resistance at the Tuileries and the Place de la Concorde - Capture of the Heights of Montmartre - Important Military Results thus obtained - Commencement of the Incendiary Fires - Burning of the Tuileries - The Troops reach the Hôtel de Ville, which they find on Fire - Occupation of the Pantheon and the Luxemburg - Half of Paris recovered- Forte evacuated by the Federals - Progress on the Left Bank- Desperate Resistance at the Pont d'Austerlitz and the Place de la Bastille - Fighting on the 26th and 27th May - Capture of Belleville and the Buttes de Chaumont - The Troops reach La Roquette too late to save the Hostages - Final Suppression of the Insurrection on the 28th - Death of Delescluze - Proclamation of Marshal MacMahon - Losses on both sides - The Hostages - Letter of Intercession from the Protestant Ministers of Paris - The name of Hostage misapplied to the Prisoners of the Commune - Last Moments and Execution of Archbishop Darboy - Deaths of Jesuits and Dominicans - Fate of the principal men of the Commune - The Treaty of Frankfort - A French Writer on the Commune.
  • Chapter: XLIX.
    Loss of H.M.S. Captain off Cape Finisterre - Admiral Milne's Report - Account given by the Survivors - The Queen's Letter of Condolence - Finding of the Court-Martial. - Contested Elections in Ireland in 1871 - Judge Keogh's Report on the Galway Election - Its Sensational Character - Protest against it signed by Cardinal Cullen and his Clergy - It elicits marked Approval in other Quarters. - Assassination of Lord Mayo, Governor-General of India, while at the Andaman Islands - The Convict Settlement at, Port Blair - Visit of the Viceroy - The Party ascend Mount Harriet on Ross Island - A Khyberee stabs Lord Mayo in the back twice - Wounds Mortal - Discussion as to the Motives of the Murderer - The Opinion of Mr. Hunter - Fanaticism of the Wahabees. - Death of Mazzini - Sketch of his Career - His Disappointment at the Non-Establishment of an Italian Republic - He dies at Geneva in 1872.
  • Chapter: L. History of the National progress during the last twenty years
    Population of the United Kingdom - Great Decrease in Ireland since the Census of 1841 - Large Increase in England and Wales and in Scotland -Emigration - Foreign Immigrants - Movement of the Population within the United Kingdom - The British Empire: its Extent and Population in 1851 and 1871 - Sir C. Dilke on the Future of the Anglo-Saxon Race - Gravitation of Population to Towns - Urban and Rural Population of England and Wales in 1851 and 1871 - Reverse Current - Occupations of the People- Decrease in the Agricultural, and Increase in the Manufacturing and Commercial Districts - England an increasingly Manufacturing and Commercial Country - Numbers employed in the Great Trades and Occupations of England.
  • Chapter: LI. History of the National progress - Continued.
    Trade and Commerce of the United Kingdom - Analysis of the Imports and Exports - Animal and Vegetable Food - Drinks - Raw Materials of Manufactures - Manufactured Goods - Enormous Preponderance of Food and Raw Materials in Imports, and of Manufactured Goods in Exports - Dependence on Supplies of Food from Abroad - Wealth of the Country - Estimates of the Annual National Income - Professor Leone Levi and Mr. Dudley Baxter - Progress of the Nation during the Ten Years 1860 - 1870.
  • Chapter: LII.
    Progress of the Arts subsidiary to Commerce - Engineering - Railways: Rapid Extension to all Civilised Countries: The Labour they Cost compared with the Pyramids - Bridges: Britannia and Conway: Saltash; The Victoria Bridge over the St. Lawrence - The Metropolitan Underground Line - Number of Railway Stations in London in 1871 - Mont Cenis Tunnel and Railway - Construction of Foreign Railways - Traffic, Miles Open, Passengers, Capital, and Returns of the United Kingdom, 1851 and 1871 - Shipping and Shipbuilding: The British Mercantile Navy: Merchant Seamen and Tonnage: Iron Steamers: The War Navy: The Battle of the Guns and Armour Plates: Screw Propellers: The Great Britain: The Great Eastern - The Suez Canal - The Electric Telegraph: Export of Telegraph-wire - Purchase of Land Telegraphs by the British Government - The First Submarine Telegraph between England and France - Ocean Telegraphy: The Atlantic Cable.
  • Chapter: LIII. The Iron and Steel Manufactures
    The Iron and Steel Manufactures - The Bessemer Process - Professor Roscoe's application of the Spectroscope - Strength of Bessemer Iron and Steel - Bessemer Steel Rails - Rise of Barrow-in-Furness - Middlesborough and the Cleveland District - The Iron produced in the United Kingdom, 1855 and 1871, and at Earlier Periods- Mechanical Engineering - Nasmyth's Steam Hammer; Maudslay's Slide-rest - Sir Joseph "Whitworth's Improvements in Planing- Machines, Screws, and Measurements: His Rifled Firearms - Sir "W. Fairbairn's Girders - Steam-Engines - High Pressure Steam - The "Iron Duke" Locomotive - Steam Power of the United Kingdom - The Nail Manufacture.
  • Chapter: LIV. Coal: Its Value and Power
    Coal: Its Value and Power - Rapidly increasing Consumption in Nineteenth Century - How Consumed - Coal used in the Iron Manufacture, &c. - Value of Coal produced in 1861 and 1871 compared with value of Metals produced in those Years - Enormous Waste in Consumption - Fuel-saving Apparatus - Waste in Production of Steam Power - Mr. Hull and Sir W. Armstrong on the Duration of British Coal - Professor Jevons's Work on the Coal Question - Appointment of Royal Commission on Coal - Aggregate Coal Produce 1781-1853, and 1854-1863; also 1781-1861, and 1861-1871 - Professor Jevons's Estimate of Future Consumption of Coal at Rate of Increase up to 1864 - Inference there from - Contents of British Coal-Beds - Estimates by Royal Commissioners of Future Coal Consumption - Their Concluding Remarks on the Coal Question - Area of European and American Coal-Fields.
  • Chapter: LV.
    Paraffin and Petroleum - Mr. James Young's Invention: His Paraffin Works at Bathgate and West Calder - Paraffin Oils and Wax- Naphtha - Products of Coal Tar - Discovery of Mauve by Mr. W. H. Perkin, in 1856 - The Aniline Dyes - Hofmann's Violets, &c. - Naphthalin Dyes - The Salt Manufacture - Chemical Manures and the Progress of Agriculture - Photography - The Jute Manufacture and Dundee - The Alpaca and Mohair Manufacture, Saltaire - The Shoddy and Mungo Manufacture - The Sewing-Machine: Elias Howe, its Inventor: Effects of its Introduction on the Manufacture of Apparel, Millinery and Dressmaking, Tailoring, and Boots and Shoes, and in providing increased Employment for Women.

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