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Cassells Illustrated History of England


From the French Revolution (July, 1792) to the death of George III. (January, 1820)

The period which this Volume embraces is one fraught with a multitude of incidents grave and gay, terrible, painful, and pleasing. We find ourselves at the very outset (1792) contemplating the fiendish massacres of a French Revolution, which saw not only the horrible murders of its innocent victims, but also the downfall and deaths of its short-lived favourites. We tell the story and history of the amiable Louis XVI. who, sprung from regal ancestors, was despoiled of his kingly rights and privileges, thrust with his family into a noisome prison, where he, in common with the rest suffered the most unheard-of degradation, insults, and cruelty, and was at length released from a life that had become burdensome, by death on the scaffold, which in his case lost that ignominy usually attached to such last penalties of the law, for " nothing in his life became him like the leaving it." We also speak at length of the sore fate of his wife - the beautiful, accomplished, and unfortunate Marie Antoinette, and are more than inclined to consider the shortcomings which marked her early life atoned for by the heroic attitude she assumed in her latter days. Complete mention is made of the dastardly cowards who acted so important a part in this fearful tragedy, and whose names are inscribed upon the page of history, standing forth in boldest type as "a byeword and shaking of the head to the nations" - Robespierre, Marat, Danton, with their myriad cut-throat followers less scheming but as bloodthirsty as their Mephistophelean masters.

We pass on gladly from the events of this melancholy period, and by the aid of the seven-leagued boots renowned in nursery fable, step over many an interesting point, till we approach the beginning of the nineteenth centuiy. This is an all-important era. Out of the ruins of intestine war France had arisen by the direction of a master-hand to a foremost place among the nations. One nation after another succumbed to the gigantic capabilities of the man; and ere long we find that he had even cherished the idea of an invasion of England. However, from the attitude which Englishmen assumed, Napoleon plainly saw that that notion of his was a mistake, and the time had not yet come. Meanwhile, all his attempts to cripple our sovereignty on the seas were futile, and were at length stultified at Trafalgar, though the victory cost us the life of a gallant admiral, who died in the discharge of his duty. The glorious career of Wellington in the Peninsula cramped Napoleon's progress in the South. From conquest to conquest the Iron Duke marched on, and by his example encouraged the other nations to take heart. They bided their time, however, but neither theirs nor Napoleon's was long in coming. The ill-fated invasion of Russia marked his final downfall. The spell was removed from the eyes of the French nation, and they only saw in the many conscriptions that were ruthlessly levied so many hecatombs of all who were near and dear to them to gratify the vanity and ambition of a wicked man. At last the crisis arrived: Waterloo overthrew one of the greatest and worst of conquerors, and he was sent into retirement on the lonely ocean isle, and the world was thus rid of the greatest despot it has ever seen.

The annals of our own nation are carefully narrated at great length. Its political history is so laid down, as to be clear to the understanding of all. Its social side - the rise and progress of the people in education,, and a more liberal and charitable way of thinking, is distinctly marked. All those features which worked together for a better understanding between government and governed, and gradually led up (among other things) to the emancipation of the Catholics and Parliamentary reform, are chronicled as more worthy of record than the bloody triumphs of victorious generals. The fact that this Volume includes all the events that occurred between the year 1792 and the close of George the Third's long reign will give the best idea of the immense ground we cover and the mass of information in store for the reader. Not the least interesting chapter we believe will be that in which we review what happened in the reign of George III. in the departments of science, art, literature, and manufactures. This reign was peculiarly fertile in these good works; and, contrasted with the preceding, reveals a revolution which commands our heartiest sympathies and admiration as fully as that Revolution with which we open the Volume inspires us with horror and loathing.

Table of content

  • Chapter: I. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    The Feast of the Federates on the 14th of July - A fresh Attack on the Tuileries planned - Robespierre denounces La Fayette in the Jacobin Club, and in his Journal - The Jacobins in the Assembly demand a National Convention - The Duke of Brunswick, at the head of the Allied Armies, announces his March on France - The Marseillaise Federates arrive in Paris - Are received by the Assembly - They fight with the Grenadiers - The King sends a Message to the Assembly denying ail knowledge of the Designs of the Allies - Petion, Mayor of Paris, demands from the Assembly the Dethronement of the King - Fresh Plan for the King's Escape again abortive - Grand Attack on the Tuileries - Flight of the Royal Family to the Assembly - The Palace stormed and plundered - Massacre of the Swiss Guards - Deposition of the King - March of Dumouriez against the Allies.
  • Chapter: II. Reign of George III. (Continued.)
    Preparations of Dumouriez to resist the Allies - Repulses the Prussians at Valmy - The Prussians retreat to Coblentz - Dumouriez defeats the Austrians at Jemappe, and makes himself Master of Flanders - Takes Aix-la-Chapelle - The French, under Custine, invade Germany on the Upper Rhine - They take Worms, Speir, Mayence, and Frankfort - The French, under Montesquieu, also invade and seize the Provinces of Nice and Savoy - Meeting of the Convention at Paris - All the leading Jacobins become Members - The Convention abolishes Royalty - Conflicts of the Jacobins and Girondists - The Mountain, the Plain, and the Gironde - The Attack of the Gironde on Robespierre and Marat - Danton and Servan resign, and are succeeded by Pache and Garat - Triumph of Robespierre over the Gironde - Committee of Twenty-four to inquire into the Crimes of Louis Capet, formerly King - Resolves that the King shall be tried - The Convention decrees the Trial by itself - Discovery of the Iron Chest - Trial of the King - Proposal to banish the Duke of Orleans and his Family - The King brought to the Bar of the Convention - Doomed to die - The Sentence announced to Louis - His Deaths - Rejoicings of 1he Jacobins - Sensation in England - Demand for War with France - The Militia called out - Fox and his Party vote for a Treaty with the French Republic - Dismissal of the French Ambassador - Declaration of War by France against England.
  • Chapter: III. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    The French, under Dumouriez, Miranda, &c., driven from Holland by the Allies - Dumouriez defeated at Neerwinden - Surrenders Brussels - Order for Dumouriez's Arrest - His Flight with the Duke de Chartres-General Dampierre appointed Commander - Defeated and killed at Famars - Division of Poland - Campaign on the Rhine and in Belgium - Retreat of the Duke of Brunswick from Dunkirk - Campaign betwixt French and Spaniards in the South - Campaign in Savoy and Nice - Attack of the French on the Island of Sardinia - Seizure of French West India Islands, and of the French Factories in the East Indies - Toulon surrendered to Lord Hood - Its Fleet captured or burnt - French Atrocities there - English at Leghorn - Grand Duke of Tuscany joins the Allies - English at Genoa- French Intrigues in Italy - Paris - Attack of the Jacobins on the Girondists - Proscriptions of the Girondists - Marat killed by Charlotte Corday - She is guillotined - Siege of and Massacre at Lyons - Reign of Terror in Paris - Horrible Guillotining - Trial and Execution of Marie Antoinette- Butchery of the Girondists - Executions of Philip Egalité, Madame Roland, Bailly, Manuel, Generals Houchard, Biron, Beauharnais, Barnave, Dufort-Dutertre, Lebrun, Kersaint, Dietrich, Mayor of Strasbourg, Madame Dubarry, &c. - Hunting down of Petion, Barbaroux, and the other Girondist Chiefs - The War in La Vendée - Defeat of the Vendeans - Atrocities of Carrier at Nantes - His wholesale Drownings - The Deity abolished by the Jacobins - Their new Calendar - The Archbishop of Paris renounces Christianity and God - The Goddess of Reason established - The Pillage of the Churches - The royal and celebrated Dead dragged from their Graves - The general triumph of Atheism.
  • Chapter: IV. Reign of George III. (Continued.)
    Proceedings in the British Parliament - Trials of Muir, Palmer, Margarott, Skirving, and other Reformers - Arrest of Hardy, Thelwall, and Horne Tooke - Howe's Victory at Sea: Capture of various French West India Islands - Corsica annexed to Great Britain - Subsidy to Prussia - Campaign of 1794 betwixt the Allies and French in all Parts of Europe- Feud betwixt Robespierre and the Hèbertists - Arrest of Hébert and his Colleagues - Nineteen Executions, including those of Hebert and Clootz - Executions of Danton, Desmoulins, with Seventeen others - A fresh Batch of Nineteen, including Gobel, Chaumette, and the Widows of Desmoulins and Hébert - Sixty-four more Victims, including Malesherbes and Lavoisier - Twenty-five more, including the Princess Elizabeth - Fifty-four more, including Madlle. Renault - Festival of the Supreme - Eleven Hundred and Eight more Victims - Catherine Theot - Overthrow and Execution of Robespierre - Deaths of Couthon, St. Just, &c. - A new Batch of Eighty-four Victims - The Thermidoriens - The Jacobin Club shut up - The Remains of Mirabeau and Marat thrown out of their Graves - Execution of Carrier - Liberation of many Senators and other Prisoners - Final Subjection of Poland - Acquittal of Home Tooke, Thelwall, and Hardy, &c. - Execution of Watt, the Spy - Business of Parliament - 1795 opens with large Demands for Army and Navy in England - Marriage of the Duke of Sussex - Declared Null - Marriage of the Prince of Wales - Miserable Commissariat of our Army in Holland - Successes of Pichegru - Flight of the Stadtholder - French in Possession of Holland - War on the Dutch Settlements - Capture of Cape of Good Hope - Prussia makes Peace with France; followed by Spain and Tuscany - English Treaties with Russia and Germany - Sea Fight off Corsica between Hotham and the French - French take St. Eustatius and St. Lucie from us - Campaign of 1798 on the Continent - War in La Vendée, aided by the English Fleet - Reaction of the Girondists - Collot d'Herbois and Billaud Varennes transported - Triumph of the Thermidoriens - Death of the Dauphin - A New Constitution - Insurrection against it - Insurgents dispersed by Buonaparte - Directors of the Republic appointed - Bread Riots in London - The King shot at - Calls for Peace - Dutch West India I lands captured in 1796 - Naval Affairs - Campaign on the Continent - Buonaparte's Victories in Italy - Terrible Increase of National Debt - Difficulties of the Bank of England - Mutiny in the Navy - Second Mutiny at the Nore - Victory of Duncan at Camperdown - French land in Wales-Continental Campaign of 1797 - Victories of Buonaparte - Austria makes Peace with France - Buonapartist Coup-d'Etat in Paris - Rebellion in Ireland - Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Emmet, and Wolfe Tone - Capture of Minorca - Invasion of Switzerland by the French - Entry of Rome by them - Seizure of the Pope - Buonaparte's Expedition to Egypt - Battle of the Nile, August 1st, 1798 - French seize Naples - Campaign of the Austrians and Russians in Italy - Naples recovered - Duke of York in Holland - The Siege of Acre - Buonaparte made First Consul of France- Death of Tippoo Sahib, and Seizure of his Territories by England and her Allies, in May, 1799 - The Union with Ireland carried in February, 1800 - French Campaign in Italy - Battle of Marengo - Naples makes Peace with France - Resignation of Pitt - The Addington Administration - The Battle of Copenhagen - Assassination of the Czar Paul - Convention betwixt England, Russia, Denmark, and Sweden - Battle of Alexandria- Death of Abercrombie - Flight of Buonaparte - Surrender of the French Army in Egypt - Buonaparte invades Portugal - The Peace of Amiens, March, 1802.
  • Chapter: V. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    The French Republic acknowledged by England - Buonaparte's Expedition against the Negroes of St. Domingo - Buonaparte elected First Consul of the Cisalpine Republic - Marriages of the Dukes of Sussex and Cambridge - Prince of Wales's Debts - Attempts on the Life of Buonaparte - The Infernal Machine - Buonaparte's Concordat with the Pope - Buonaparte made First Consul for Life - Prepares the " Code Napoleon " - Seizure, Imprisonment, and Death of Toussaint L'Ouverture - Sebastiani's Mission in the East - Invasion of Switzerland - Trial of Colonel Despard and others, for Conspiracy - War imminent with France and Holland - Act for a Levy era masse - The Prince of Wales demands to take a Leading Rank in the Army, which is refused by the King - Trial of Peltier, Editor of L'Ambigu - Insolent Conduct of Buonaparte to Lord Whitworth, the English Ambassador - The English seize French and Dutch Ships in their Harbours - Buonaparte seizes English Travellers in France - Invades Hanover - Emmett's Rebellion in Ireland - Bombardment of Dieppe - Campaign in India against the Mahrattas - Return of the King's Malady - The Addington Ministry resign - Pitt again in Power - Vast Preparations for War - Attempt with the Catamarans at Boulogne - Seizure of Spanish Ships - War with Spain - Pichegru, Georges Cadoudal, &c., inveigled into France, and seized - Seizure and Murder of the Duke d'Enghien - Pichegru and Captain Wright found Dead in Prison - Moreau banished from France - Execution of Georges Cadoudal, and other Royalists - Buonaparte becomes Emperor.
  • Chapter: VI. The Reign of George III - (Continued.)
    Coronation of Buonaparte and Josephine by the Pope - Creation of New French Nobility - These Ceremonies and Titles adopted by the Negroes of St. Domingo - Buonaparte addresses George III. as "Brother and King" - Intrigues against our Ambassadors on the Continent by Buonaparte - Seizure of Sir George Rumbold,_ at Hamburg - Coalition of Pitt and Addington - Addington made Lord Sidmouth - Spanish Affairs - Lord Melville compelled to retire from Office - Case of Mr. Peter Stuart - Melville expelled the Privy Council - Order for Melville's Impeachment by the Commons, for Frauds as First Lord of the Admiralty - Sidmouth resigns - Changes in Cabinet - New Continental League formed with England against France - Napoleon made King of Italy- Lead the Army of England against Germany - Bavaria joins France- Prussia and Baden remain Neutral - The French enter Bavaria - Mack, the Austrian General, beaten, and surrenders at Ulm - The Battle of Trafalgar, on the same Day as Mack's Surrender - The French enter Vienna - The Austrians driven out of Italy - The Austrians and Russians defeated at the Battle of Austerlitz - Austria makes Peace - Buonaparte gives Regal Titles to the Electors of Wurtemberg and Bavaria, and marches into the Austrian Territory - Marries his Relatives into these new Royal Families - Abortive Attempts to bring the Swedes and Russians against Buonaparte - Actions at Sea - Fight betwixt Admirals Calder and Villeneuve - Death of Nelson at Trafalgar - Fresh Mahratta War - Successful Campaigns of Lord Lake - Death of Pitt - The Grenville and Fox Ministry, called " All the Talents " Ministry - Abortive Negotiations with Buonaparte for Peace - Windham's System of Army Reform - Abolition of the Slave Trade - Trial and Acquittal of Lord Melville- Commission of Inquiry into the Conduct of the Princess of Wales - The English and Russians in Naples - Return of the French - Joseph Buonaparte proclaimed King of the Two Sicilies - The War in Sicily and Calabria maintained by the English, under Sir John Stuart and Sir Sidney Smith - Recovery of the Cape of Good Hope - Conquest of Buenos Ayres by Sir Hope Popham and General Beresford - Beresford captured - Proposals of General Miranda to England for the Subjugation of the Spanish American Colonies - Miranda's Attempt, with American Aid- Civil War in Hayti - Admiral Duckworth's Defeat of the French Fleet off St. Domingo - Other Sea Fights - Fresh Honours and Princedoms distributed by Buonaparte - Louis Buonaparte made King of Holland - Buonaparte organises a German Confederation and a Confederate German Array to fight for France - Makes War on Prussia - Overruns Brunswick and Saxony - Murder of Palm, the Bookseller, of Nuremberg, by Buonaparte - Defeat of the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt - Buonaparte enters Berlin - Prince Hohenlohe defeated and taken at Prenzlow - Surrender of General Blucher - Buonaparte calls on the Poles to rise against Russia and Prussia - Makes an Ally of Saxony - The French, repulsed by the Russians, retire into Warsaw - Death of Charles Fox.
  • Chapter: VII. The Reign of George III - (Continued.)
    Parliamentary Discussions on the War - Enormous Frauds in the Military Department - Prosecution of Davison, Treasurer of the Ordnance - Abolition of the Slave Trade - All the Talents resign - Ministry of the Duke of Portland - Dissolution of Parliament - Immense purchase of Seats by Ministers - Restrictions on Ireland - Popular Education opposed - Failure of General Whitelocke at Buenos Ayres - Failure of Sir John Duckworth before Constantinople - Abortive Attempt on Egypt, under General Frazer - War declared by Turkey against England, and Alliance made with the French - Deposition of the Sultan Selim by Mustapha - Triumph of French Diplomacy in Turkey - Capture of Curaçoa by the English - Bombardment of Copenhagen - Declaration of War by Denmarlz - Seizure of Heligoland by England - Also of the Danish West India Islands - Terrible Repulse of the French by the Russians and Prussians at Mohringhen and Eylau - Battle of Friedland - Treaty of Tilsit, betwixt Buonaparte, Alexander of Russia, and the King of Prussia - Buonaparte's Treatment of Poland - Retreat of the Swedes from Stralsund - Seizure of Portugal by Buonaparte - Seizure of Rome by him - Tuscany annexed to France - Charges against the Marquis of Wellesley's Indian Administration set aside - The Royal Family of Spain kidnapped by Buonaparte, and the Crown of Spain conferred by him on Iiis Brother Joseph - »Murat made King of Naples - Terrible Excitement of the Spanish People - Massacre by them of French Soldiers - The People fly to Arms, and seek 4id from the English - Five Thousand Men sent to Spain - General Custanos commences the War against the French - The Spaniards swear Fealty to Ferdinand VII. - General Cuesta beaten by the French at Rio Seco - Dupont and Vedel surrender to the Spaniards in Andalusia - King Joseph Buonaparte flies from Madrid - The Siege of Zaragossa abandoned - General Dubesme driven from Gerona - Marshal Moncey from Valencia - Like Spain, Portugal rises on the French - Sir Arthur Wellesley lands at Oporto with Ten Thousand Men, and is joined by General Spencer, with Four Thousand more - Wellesley defeats the French at Roriga, but is superseded by Sir Hugh Dalrymple - Wellesley defeats Junot at Vimiera - Junot capitulates with the British at the Convention of Cintra - Sir John Moore appointed to the Command in Portugal - Advances to Salamanca, in Spain - Buonaparte hastens to Spain - Defeats the Spaniards, and recovers Madrid - Retreat of the English - Battle of Corunna - Death of Sir John Moore - Evacuation of Portugal by the British.
  • Chapter: VIII. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    The British Government, spite of the issue of Sir John Moore's Campaign, make Alliance with Spain, and determine to prosecute the War there - The Affair of the Duke of York and Mary Anne Clarke - The Duke compelled to resign the Office of Commander-in-Chief - Discovery of corrupt Government Practices in various Departments - Charges against Lord Castlereagh, Spencer Perceval, and others - Sir Francis Burdett moves for Parliamentary Reform - Sir Arthur Wellesley appointed to command in the Spanish Peninsula - Proceeds to Lisbon - Drives Soult out of Oporto - Pursuit of Soult, harassed by the Peasants - He flies into Gallicia - Mr. Frere superseded by the Marquis of Wellesley - Sir Arthur advances into Spain - Joined by the Spanish General Cuesta - Ill-disposition of the Spaniards towards their English Allies - The Battle of Talavera - Shameful Conduct of the Spaniards in withholding Provisions - Sir Arthur Wellesley created Lord Wellington - He fixes his Camp at Viseu for the Winter - Austria declares War against France - Stupendous Preparations for War by England - The Walcheren Expedition - Port of Flushing destroyed - Capri taken by Murat - French Atrocities in Calabria - English take Ischia and Procida - Capture of the Ionian Isles by England - Revolution in Turkey - Russia declares War against Turkey - Defeated by the Turks - Capture of Danish and French West India and African Colonies - Last Victory and Death of Lord Collingwood - Destruction of French Ships in the Basque Roads by Lord Cochrane - War in Austria - Buonaparte defeated at Aspern - His Victory at Wagram - Austria makes Peace - Defeat of the Austrians by the Russians in Poland - Driven out of Italy by the French - The Pope carried to France, and his Territories annexed to French Italy - The Black Brunswickers - Rising against the French in the Tyrol - Andrew Hofer shot by order of Buonaparte - Resignation of the Portsmouth Ministry - Duel of Castlereagh and Canning - The Liverpool Ministry - Riots in London - Sir Francis Burdett committed to the Tower - Imprisonment of Gale Jones - Parliament prorogued, and Sir Francis Burdett and Gale Jones liberated - Campaign in Spain and Portugal - Battle of Busaco - Wellington's Retreat on Torres Vedras - Capture of the Isles of Bourbon and France, of Guadaloupe, in the West Indies; of the Dutch Settlements, Amboyna, and the Spice Islands - Failure of French Attempts on Sicily - Divorce of Josephine, and Marriage of Buonaparte with Maria Louisa of Austria - Deposition of Louis Buonaparte, and Annexation of Holland and the Hanse Towns to France - Insanity of George III., and Appointment of the Prince of Wales as Regent.
  • Chapter: IX. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    Instalment of the Prince Regent - Duke of York re-appointed Commander-in- Chief of the Forces - Bill to prevent the Depreciation of Paper Money - Buonaparte imagines that his Continental System is producing the Ruin of England - Progress of the War in Portugal - Retreat of Massena from Santarem, pursued by Wellington - French expelled from Portugal - Surrender of Badajoz by the Spaniards - Defeat of the French at Barossa - The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro, and Fall of Almeida - Massena recalled by Buonaparte - Ney, Junot, and other Generals, return to Paris - Battle of Albuera - Reduction of Tarragona by Soult - Surrender of Blake, and the last Spanish Army at Valencia - Reduction of Java by the English - The King of Rome born - Buonaparte attempts to divide France from the Roman See - Attack in the Commons on Sinecure Offices - The Whigs desert the Prince Regent - Perceval, the Prime Minister, shot by Belling- ham - Grants and Pensions to his Family - The Liverpool Ministry - Riots in the Cotton Districts - The War in Spain - Storming of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz by Wellington - Defeat of Victor at Tarifa - Battle of Salamanca - Wellington in Madrid - Maitland's Reinforcement for Sicily - Wellington retreats to Salamanca; to Ciudad Rodrigo - Sicilian Affairs - Plot against the English Army - Lord William Bentinck's Re- forms - Abdication of the King in Favour of his Son - A New Constitution - Queen Caroline sent out of the Country - Naval Actions - Differences with America - British Ships seized - Influence of the French - The Affairs of the " Chesapeake " and the " Little Belt " - Capture of some small English Vessels by huge American ones - Buonaparte prepares for War with Russia and Sweden - Seizes Pomerania and Rugen - Bernadotte's Interview with Alexander of Russia - Buonaparte proposes Peace with England - Crosses the Niemen with nearly Half a Million of Men - Retreat of the Russians to Smolensk; thence to Moscow - Battle of Borodino - Moscow burnt by the Russians - Retreat of the Grand Army, amid unexampled Horrors - Buonaparte's Escape back to Paris, with the Loss of the greater part of his Army.
  • Chapter: X. The Reign of George III. - (Continued.)
    Wellington in Spain - Soult withdrawn by Buonaparte to meet the Russians - The French driven out of Andalusia, Estremadura, Aragon, and Biscay - Lord Wellington made Commander-in-Chief of the Spanish Forces - King Joseph finally evacuates Madrid - Battle of Vittoria - Blockade of Pamplona - Wellington in the Pyrenees - Soult sent back to resist Wellington - Battles in the Passes - Battle of San Sebastian- Wellington crosses the Bidasoa into France - Welcomed by the Inhabitants - St. Jean de Luz - Wellington before Bayonne in December - Movements of the English in the South of Spain - Siege of Tarragona- Arrival of Lord William Bentinck from Sicily - Troops embarked for Alicante - French evacuate Tarragona - Bentinck repulsed by Suchet at Villa Franca - Returns to Sicily - General Clinton left in Command- Buonaparte musters New Forces - Appears, in the Spring of 1813, in Germany with Three Hundred and Fifty Thousand Men - Murat returns to head the Cavalry - Maria Louisa appointed Regent during Buonaparte's absence - Alexander of Russia advances into Prussia - Is joined by the King of Prussia - Armistice offered to Napoleon, and refused- Alliance betwixt Russia and Prussia - The French evacuate Berlin and Dresden - Rising all over Germany - Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and Hamburg cleared of the French - The Allies occupy Leipsic - Repulsed by Buonaparte at Lützen and Bautzen - Great Britain joins the Coalition of Russia and Prussia - French recover Dresden - Armistice agreed to - News of the English victory at Vittoria encourages the Allies - The Armistice expires without result - Enormous advances of Money to Russia, Prussia, and Sweden - Austria joins the Coalition - Vandamme defeated and taken prisoner in Bohemia - Oudinot and Ney beaten by Bernadotte - Blücher beats the French at Katzbach - Bavaria joins the Allies - Deaths of General Moreau and of Theodore Körner - Defeat of Buonaparte at Leipsic - He retreats over the Rhine - Recovery of all the Prussian Fortresses - Holland rises against the French, and is aided by England - Bernadotte overruns Denmark - Switzerland opens to the March of the Allies - England sends an Army to Holland - Buonaparte treats with Ferdinand of Spain - Wellington advances into France - Victory of Orthez - Wellington occupies Bourdeaux - Ferdinand of Spain is liberated, and reaches that country - British Victory at Toulouse - News of the Abdication of Buonaparte reaches the South - A Convention signed betwixt Wellington and Soult - Base Sally of General Thouvenel from Bayonne - Congress of Chatillon-sur-Seine - The Allies cross the Rhine - Buonaparte repulses Blucher at Brienne and La Rothière - Advance of Schwarzenberg and Blucher on Paris - The Allies in Paris - Abdication of Napoleon - He is sent to Elba - Louis XVIII. is proclaimed - The Allied Sovereigns in London - Norway given to Sweden - Hanover returned to England - The Austrians recover Upper Italy - The King of Sardinia restored - Murat retires to Naples - Restoration of the Pope - Ferdinand proclaimed in Spain - The Duke of Wellington arrives in London - Vote of Honours and an Estate to him - Sent as Ambassador to Paris.
  • Chapter: XI. The Reign of George III. - (Concluded.)
    The Congress of Vienna - Escape of Buonaparte from Elba - The Allies resume the War - Buonaparte's Proceedings - His triumphant March to Paris - Joined by Ney and the Troops of Macdonald - Louis XVIII. and his Court fly - Buonaparte at the Tuileries - The Chambers of Legislature pronounce Buonaparte dethroned - Murat declares for Buonaparte - Defeated and driven from Naples - Buonaparte quits Paris for the Army - Enters Belgium - Wellington with the Army of the Allies at Brussels - Blucher with the Prussians at Namur - Buonaparte defeats the Prussians at Ligny - Ney repulsed by Wellington at Quatre Bras - Death of the Duke of Brunswick - Wellington retires on Waterloo - Battle of Waterloo - Buonaparte again abdicates in favour of his Son - Fighting betwixt Blucher and the French before Paris - Paris surrendered to the Allies - Louis XVIII. re-enters Paris - Buonaparte gives himself up to the British Captain Maitland, at Rochefort - Conveyed to Plymouth Sound- Condemned to removal to St. Helena - The War with the United States - Fight betwixt the Shannon and the Chesapeake - The Actions at Sea - Capture of the American Ship, the President - Fighting on the Lakes- Surprise of the American Camp at Burlington Bay - Burning of Sackett's Harbour - The Americans evacuate the Canadian Side of the Niagara - Disgraceful Conduct of Sir George Prevost, Governor of Canada - Defeat of the English in a Lake Fight - Defeat of the Indians, their Allies - Final defeat of the Americans, and expulsion from both Canadas - The English burn the American Fleet in the Patuxent - The British burn Washington - Sir George Prevost retreats before the Americans - His Recall and Death - Attack on New Orleans - Retreat of the British - Peace concluded with America - Ney and Labedoyere arrested and shot - Lavallette’s Escape - Imprisonment of Sir Robert Wilson, Captain Hutchinson, and Mr. Bruce, for aiding his Escape - Murat's mad Expedition against Naples - His Arrest and Execution - Final Settlement of French Affairs by the Congress of Vienna - Restoration of the Works of Art stolen from the different Nations - Money advanced by England to carry the allied Armies home - Buonaparte in St. Helena - Domestic Events down to Demise of George III. - His Death.
  • Chapter: XII. The progress of the nation

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