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Gazetteer page 8

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Mintlyn. - A decayed parish 2½ m. E. by S. from Lynn. The church is in ruins.

Morley St BotoLPH. - A village 3 m. W. by S. from Wymondham.

Morley St Peter. - A small parish 2 m. N.W. from Spooner Row station. The Old Hall, an Elizabethan moated manor- house, is now a farmhouse.

Morningthorpe. - a village about 4 m. E. from Forncett station. The church contains a fine altar tomb and, in front of the western gallery, an oak carving of the royal arms. Boyland Hall, in this parish, is an Elizabethan house, built in 1571. It has a a bust of Queen Elizabeth, removed from Tilbury House, above one of the entrances.

Morston. - A parish 6 m. E. from Wells and 1 m. from the coast. The church contains an ancient screen and font, and a brass dated 1596.

Morton-on-the-Hill. - A village on the Wensum, 1 m. S. from Attlebridge station.

Moulton. - A scattered parish 2 in. N. from Cantley station. The church is an ancient building in the early Norman style.

Moulton St Michael. - A village 2 m. N. from Tivetshall station. There is a fourteenth-century tomb in the churchyard; also a stone to a member of the Wykeham family.

Mulbarton-with-Kenningham. - A village surrounding a large green, 2 m. W. from Swainstliorpe station.

MUNDESLEY. - A rising seaside health and pleasure resort, with a station, 8 m. S.E. from Cromer. Though still only a village, Mundesley is fast gaining favour on account of its excellent beach and bathing, bold cliffs, and picturesque surroundings. Every year sees an increase in its accommodation for visitors, and it has already become an enterprising rival to Cromer. The church was originally a fine building, but its tower and chancel are now in ruins, service being held in a small portion of the nave. The G.E. R. issue week-end, fortnightly, and tourist tickets from London and most of the principal stations to Mundesley. Visitors will find accommodation at the Royal, Clarence, and Old Ship Hotels, the Lifeboat Inn, the Tower Boarding-House, and elsewhere in the village.

There are many places of interest in the neighbourhood, including Bromholm Priory, Knapton, Paston, and Trunch Churches, Overstrand, Sidestrand, Trimingham, and Cromer. Others are mentioned under Cromer.

Mundford. - A parish 4½ m. N.E. from Brandon station.

Mundham. - A village 2½ m. W. from Loddon and 6 m. N. from Ditchingham station. The church is an ancient building in the Norman style, with a good Norman south doorway.

Narborough. - A village, with a station, 5½ N.W. from Swaffham. The church contains several brasses to the Spelman family; also a window containing some old glass and a shield of the Spelman arms. Narborough Hall was built by John Spelman, Justice of the Common Pleas, in the reign of Henry VIII. A curious earthwork extends from Narborough to Caldecott, a distance of about 9 miles.

Narford. - A parish 1½ m. N.E. from Narborough station. Narford Hall, the seat of the Fountaines, was built by Sir Andrew Fountaine, who was knighted by William III. This Sir Andrew was vice-chamberlain to the Prince of Wales in 1726, and a friend of Pope and Swift.

Neatishead. - A village between the Bure and the Ant, m. N.E. from Wroxham station. The church was originally a much larger building.

Necton. - A village 1½ m. N. from Holme Hale station. The church has a curiously wrought roof adorned with ten large figures of angels, carved in oak, below which, on brackets, are the twelve Apostles. Adjoining the chancel is a chapel of St Catherine. The pulpit of carved oak dates from 1636. There are brasses here to Ismena de Wynston (1372), Philippa de Beauchamp (1384), and two others of the sixteenth century.

Needham. - A scattered village 1½ m. S.W. from Harleston station,

Newton-by-Castle-Acre. - A village 3 m. N.W. from Dunham station. The church is said to date from the reign of Edward the Confessor.

Newton Flotman. - A village 1½ m. N.E. from Flordon station. In the church is a brass of the Blondeville family, with dates from 1400 to 1638.

Newton, West. - A village 2 m. E. from Wolferton station and adjoining Sandringham. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales is the chief landowner, and has erected a number of cottages, also a clubhouse, for the villagers. The church, an ancient Caen stone building in the Perpendicular style, was until recently in a very dilapidated state; but has now been restored at the expense of the Prince of Wales and other members of the royal family. The chancel stalls were given by the Duke of Edinburgh, and the reredos by the late Duke of Albany. The west window was filled with painted glass at the cost of Prince and Princess Christian, the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, Princess Louise, and the Marquis of Lorne. Her Majesty the Queen gave the organ; the Emperor Frederick III. and the Empress of Germany the altar cross, candlesticks, and flower vases; the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge the altar cloth; Lord Colville of Culross an alms dish; and the prayer desks and pulpit were presented by members of the Sandringham household.

Nordelph. - A hamlet forming part of Upwell, 4 m. W. from Downham.

Northrepps. - A village 2 m. S.E. from Cromer. Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., the slave emancipator, formerly occupied the Hall. He died here, and is buried in the ruined church at Overstrand. The Hall is an Elizabethan house, considerably modernised.

North wold. - A village 3 m. S.E. from Stoke Ferry station. The church has a finely painted and ornamented nave roof, and contains a remarkable Easter sepulchre on the north side of the chancel. It is 12 feet high and 9 feet long, and in front are four sleeping soldiers. There is an ancient stone cross in the village.

Norton Subcourse. - A scattered village 3½ m. S.W. from Reedham station.

Norwich. - A city and county in itself, the chief town of Norfolk, situated on the Wensum just above its junction with the Yare, distant about 20 m. W. from Yarmouth and 113 from London.

The Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was founded by Bishop Herbert de Lozinga in 1096, and is chiefly in the Norman style, with Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular insertions and additions. Its entire length is 407 feet; width, including the aisles, 97 feet; breadth across the transepts, 178 feet; height of vaulting, 73 feet; and height of tower with spire, 315 feet. The choir with its aisles and chapels, the transepts and the central tower, were built by the founder, whose work extended so far as the altar of Holy Cross in the nave; but his successor, Bishop Eborard, extended nave and aisles westward, his work being completed by John of Oxford, who was bishop from 1175. During the thirteenth century conflicts between the monks and the citizens resulted in considerable damage to the building; but it was restored and reconsecrated in the presence of Edward I. and his queen. A wooden spire was erected in 1295 by Bishop Walpole, who also commenced the cloisters; but it was blown down in 1362, and replaced in 1364-9 by a stone spire. The cloisters were completed in 1430. Bishop Goldwell (1472-99) expended a considerable sum in repairing the spire, which had been struck by lightning; erecting a chanting chapel, and constructing the choir, to support which he added a series of flying buttresses. The west front is the work of Bishop Alnwick, whose successor designed the stone vaulting of the nave. The north and south transepts were vaulted by Bishop Nyx early in the sixteenth century.

The Rev. G. B. Doughty, B.A., in an interesting monograph, writes: - "The splendid spire of the Cathedral... does not impress one from this point (the west aspect) with a sense of its height or particular beauty. Yet it is the second tallest spire in England, Salisbury being the first. But stand close under the west window and look eastward up the nave; you cannot fail to be struck by the pureness of its Norman style. This nave comprises no less than fourteen bays, and again stands second amongst English Cathedrals, this time in point of length, St Alban's having the advantage. The length of the Norwich nave is not so apparent at first sight owing to the fact that three of its bays are included by the choir screen. The fact that the organ on the screen is somewhat insignificant in size is perhaps an advantage, as the eye can take in the whole sweep of the richly vaulted and embossed roof. It is only possible to convey a faint idea of the richness of this roof with its numerous intersections and remarkable bosses, each of which will repay inspection through a pair of good glasses. There are over three hundred of these bosses, representing Bible history from the time of Solomon to Christ.... Norwich Cathedral possesses the only stone Episcopal Throne we know to exist in England.... In the procession path north of the presbytery a pretty glimpse is obtained of the entrance to the Jesus Chapel, together with a low arch upholding a loft, once reached by a winding staircase, supposed by some to have been a reliquary chamber, but which was more probably a kind of ambulatory connected with the sleeping place of the Cathedral custodians. Notice on the other side again, south of the presbytery, the Beauchamp Chapel, now used as a Consistory Court. It was... built about 1320. The groined roof was added a century later. Close beside it is the old south-east Apsidal Chapel of St Luke, which is now the parish church for the parishioners of St Mary-in-the-Marsh."

The Cathedral contains a few interesting tombs. That of the founder, Herbert de Lozinga, is at the foot of the high altar. Originally it was raised above the ground, and on its sides were the arms of the members of the chapter in whose time it was erected. Its top slab is now let into the floor, and bears a Latin inscription by Dean Prideaux. [The tomb of Sir Thomas Erpingham, the builder of the Erpingham Gate, has disappeared; its site is marked by a raised seat along the wall of the north choir aisle.] Sir William Boleyn, of Blickling, grandfather of Queen Elizabeth, was buried here in 1505. His tomb is in the first arch south (counting from east) of the presbytery. The next recess contains a monument to Bishop Overall (1618-19), and the third the tomb of Bishop Gold well (1472-79) the builder of the vaulted stone roof. The effigy gives a very good idea of the ecclesiastical vestments of the period. Other tombs and monuments are those of Prior W. Walsham (1218), Sir Thomas Windham, vice-admiral (1421), Bishop Wakering (1426), Sir John Hobart, attorney-general to Henry VII., Bishop Nyx (1536), Bishop Parkhurst (1575), and Chancellor Miles Spenser (sixteenth century). The tomb of Bishop Bathurst, who died in 1837, is in the south transept. It is the work of Sir Francis Chantrey. Bishop Stanley, father of the famous Dean of Westminster, is buried in the centre of the nave. The flags hanging from either 298 side of the junction of choir and transept are the colours of the 54th or West Norfolk Regiment of Foot.

Of the Cloisters, Dean Goulburn writes: " The cloisters form one of the largest and most beautiful quadrangles of the kind in England. They comprise a square of about 174 feet, and are twelve feet wide. At first sight they appear uniform in construction, but upon examination there will be found a considerable difference in form and detail. They were commenced by Bishop Walpole about 1297; and although proceeded with by succeeding prelates, were not completed until 1430. The style of architecture is Decorated, mixed with traces of the Perpendicular. The eastern part will be found to be the most ancient; and a progressive change may be observed in the tracery of the windows, commencing at the north-east corner, and continuing through the south, the west, and terminating with the north sides. The roof is much admired for its exquisitely beautiful groining, and its sculptured bosses at the intersections of the groining." Some remains of a priory founded by Bishop Lozinga may be seen near the cloisters, the most conspicuous being three clustered columns, with curiously carved capitals.

The Erpingham Gate, which faces the west front of the Cathedral, was built by Sir Thomas Erpingham, who fought at Agincourt, and to whom Shakespeare makes King Henry V. say on the morning of the battle.

"Good morrow, old Sir Thomas Erpingham,

A good soft pillow for that good white head

Were better than the churlish turf of France."

the old knight replying: -

"Not so, my liege; this lodging likes me better,

Since I may say, ' Now lie I like a king.' "

A figure in a niche of the pediment is supposed to be that of the builder. St. Ethelberfs Gate, at the other end of the open space known as Tom bland, was erected as an act of penance by Norwich citizens who had quarrelled with the Prior of Norwich, and burnt and sacked his priory. It dates from about 1272. The Palace or St. Martin s Gate, on the north side of the Cathedral, in St. Martin's Plain, was built by Bishop Alnwick about 1430.

The Bishop's Palace stands on the north side. Little of the original building founded by Bishop Lozinga remains. Some ruins in the garden are supposed to be those of the entrance into the great hall. The chapel, restored in 1662, contains monuments to Bishops Reynolds and Sparrow.

The Free Grammar School, which stands a little distance from the west door of the Cathedral, was originally a chapel dedicated to St John. It dates from about 1325. The portico was built by Bishop Lyhart in 1463. Lord Nelson and Sir James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak, were scholars here. The statue of Lord Nelson, opposite the school, is by Milne.

A. double arch by the waterside, at the extremity of the close, is the old water-gate to the precincts. It is popularly known as Pull's Ferry.

Norwich Castle, which now contains the Museum, stands on an artificial earthwork of unknown origin, and overlooks the great cattle mart known as the Castle Hill. Although the entire building is called the Castle, only the great square Norman keep has a right to the name, for the other portions were built for a prison in 1824. A tradition generally accepted is that the kings of East Anglia had some kind of seat on the castle mound; but history has no definite record of any building existing before the Conquest. The first stone fortess was begun by William Fitz-Osbern, one of the Conqueror's followers, whose duty it was to keep in subjection the vanquished English of the district. In 1074 the constable was Ralph Guader, upon whom the king bestowed the Earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk. Two years later Guader married Emma, a daughter of Fitz-Osbern, who, when her husband rebelled against the king, and was absent from home, held the castle for three months against the king's troops. Of this castle, the Rev. W. Hudson writes, it is doubtful if there are any relics " except perhaps a fewslight remains in the walls of the basement." The existing keep is probably the work of Earl Roger Bigod (lord of the castle in the reign of William Rufus), and of his son Hugh, who played a prominent part in the barons' wars against King Henry III, In 1217 it was taken by Louis of France, but soon recovered. From this time until 1345 it was used as a royal prison. It was then handed over to the Sheriff of Norfolk for a county gaol. In 1806 it was transferred to the county magistrates, who held it till 1884, when it was purchased by the Norwich Corporation and eventually converted into a museum.

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